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RECON’QUER, v. a. - Fr. reconquerir. Re party pleading the record has a day given him to and conquer. To conquer again.

bring it in, ard proclamation is made in court Chatterton undertook to reconquer Ogier. Davies. for him to bring forth the record by him in

RECONVENE', v. a.. Re and convene. To pleading alleged, or else he shall be condemned; assemble anew.

and, on his failure, his antagonist shall have A worse accident fell out about the time of the judgment to recover. The trial, therefore, of two houses reconvening, which made a wonderful im- this issue is merely by the record; for, as Sir pression.

Clarendon. Edward Coke observes, a record or enrolment is RECON'SECRATE, v. a. Re and consecrate. a monument of so high a nature, and importeth To consecrate anew.

in itself such absolute verity, that if it be pleaded If a church should be consumed by fire, it shall, in that there is no such record, it shall not receive such a case, be reconsecrated., Ayliffe's Parergon. any trial by witness, jury, or otherwise, but RECONVEY', v. n. Re and convey. To only by itself

. Thus titles of nobility, as convey again.

whether earl or not earl, baron or not baron, As rivers lost in seas, some secret vein

shall be tried by the king's writ or patent only, Thence reconveys, there to be lost again. Denham. which is matter of record. Also, in case of

RECORD', v. a. & n.s. Fr. recorder ; Lat. an alien, whether alien, friend, or enemy, he

Record'er, n. s. S recordor. To regis- shall be tried by the league or treaty between ter; celebrate ; recite : a register ; authentic me- his sovereign and ours; for every league or morial; remembrance: a recorder is he whose treaty is of record. And also, whether a manor business it is to keep records; the rolls of a city, be held in ancient demesne or not, shall be tried &c.; also a kind of flute.

by the record of doomsday in the king's exche. I call heaven and earth to record this day against

quer. you, that I have set before you life and death.

The Recorder is a person whum the mayor

Deut. xxx. 20. 'Those things that are recorded of him, and his im- associate with themselves, for their direction in

and other magistrates of a city or corporation piety, are written in the chronicles. 1 Esdras i. The shepherds went among them, and sung an

matters of justice and proceedings in law; on eclogue, while the other shepherds, pulling out re- which account this person is generally a councorders, which possest the place of pipes, accorded sellor well skilled in the law. No recorder of their music to the others voice.


London is mentioned before 1304. He is the
He shall record a gist

first officer in order of precedence that is paid a Here in the court of all he dies possessed, salary, which originally was no more than £10 Unto his son Lorenzo.

Shakspeare. sterling «per annum, with some perquisites; but Is it upon record ? or else reported

it has from time to time been augmented to Successively, from age to age !


upwards of £1000 per annum. This office has I never shall have length of life enough,

sometimes been executed by a deputy. To rain upon remembrance with mine eyes,

RECORDE (Robert), M.D., an English phy-
That it may grow and sprout as high as heaven
For recordation to my noble husband.

sician and antiquarian of the sixteenth century. I asked, what meant this wilful silence ?

He was educated at Cambridge, where he took His answer was, the people were not used

his degrees, and was the first Englishman who To be spoke to except by the recorder. Id. wrote on Algebra. He was also well versed in I but your recorder am in this,

the Saxon language, and collected many hisOr mouth and speaker of the universe,

torical and other ancient MSS. His learuing, A ministerial notary; for 'tis

however, unfortunately did not prevent his being Not I, but you and fame that make the verse. imprisoned in the King's Bench prison for debt,


where he died in 1558. They longed to see the day, to hear the lark RECOUCH', v.a. Re and couch. To lie Piecord her hymns, and chaunt her carols blest. down again.

So even and morn recorded the third day. Millon,

Thou mak’est the night to overvail the day;
An ark, and in the ark a testimony,

Then lions' whelps lie roaring for their prey,
The records of his covenant.


And at thy powerful hand demand their food; Of such a goddess no time leaves record,

Who when at morn they all recouch again,
Who burned the temple where she was adored.

Then toiling man till eve pursues his pain. Wotton.
Dryden. RECOV'ER, v. a. & v. n.

Fr. recouvrir ;
If he affirms such a monarchy continued to the Recov'erable, adj.

Lat. recupero. To flood, I would know what records he has it from.

Recov'ERY, n. s.

restore; repair ; Locke.

renew ; regain; release: grow healthy or free Thy elder look, great Janus! cast Into the long records of ages past ;,

from disease or evil : recoverable is, possible to Review the years in fairest action drest. Prior.

be regained : recovery, restoration; act or power The office of recorder to this city being vacant, five of regaining: in law, act of cutting off an entail. or six persons are soliciting to succeed him. Swift. Would my lord were with the prophet; for he

Record, Trial by, is where a matter of would recover him of his leprosy. 2 Kings v. 3. record is pleaded in any action, as a fine, a

The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, to preach the judgment, or the like; and the opposite party gospel to the poor, and recovering of sight to the

Luke iv, 18. pleads, nul tiel record, that there is no such matter of record existing. Upon this, issue is of the devil, who are taken captive by him.

That they may recover themselves out of the snare tendered and joined in the following form, . and

2 Timothy č. 26. · this he prays may be enquired of by the record; These Italians, in despight of what could be done,

and the other does the like;' and hereupon the recovered Tiliaventum.



The forest is not three leagues off;

record or recovery roll, in which the writ and If we recover that, we're sure enough. Shakspears. complaint of the demandant are first recited ; A prodigal's course

whereupon the tenant appears, and calls upon Is like the sun's, but not like his, recoverable, I

one Jacob Moreland, who is supposed, at the fear.

Id. What should move me to undertake the recovery of original purchase, to have warranted the title to this, being not ignorant of the impossibility ?


the tenant; and thereupon he prays that the The spirit of wantonness is sure scared out of him ;

said Jacob Moreland may be called in to defend if the devil have him not in fee simple, with fine and the title, which he so warranted. This is called recovery.

Id. the voucher, vocatio, or calling of Jacob MoreOnce in forty years cometh a pope, that casteth his land to warranty; and Moreland called the eye upon the kingdom of Naples, to recover it to the vouchee. Upon this, Jacob Moreland, the church.

Bacon. vouchee, appears, is impleaded, and defends the They promised the good people ease in the matter title. Whereupon Golding, the demandant, of protections, by which the debts from parliament desires leave of the court to imparl, or confer men and their followers were not recoverable.

with the vouchee in private ; which is (as usual) Clarendon.

allowed him. And soon afterwards the deAdam, by this from the cold sudden damp

mandant, Golding, returns to court, but MoreRecovering, his scattered spirits returned. Milton. The clouds dispelled, the sky resumed her light,

land the vouchee disappears, or makes the deAnd nature stood recovered of her fright. Dryden.

fault. Whereupon judgment is given for the Any other person may join with him that is in- demandant, Golding, now called the recoverer, jured, and assist him in recovering from the offender to recover the lands in question against the teso much as may make satisfaction.

Locke. nant, Edwards, who is now the recoveree ; and The sweat sometimes acid, is a sign of recovery Edwards has judgment to recover of Jacob Moreafter acute distempers.

Arbuthnot on Aliments. land lands of equal value, in recompense for the RECOVERY, or COMMON Recovery, in Eng. lands so warranted by him, and now lost by his !ish law. Common recoveries were invented by default ; which is agreeable to the doctrine of the ecclesiastics to elude the statutes of mort- warranty. This is called the recompense, or remain; and afterwards encouraged by the finesse covery in value. But Jacob Moreland having no of the courts of law, in order to put an end to lands of his own, being, usually the cryer of the all fettered inheritances, and bar not only estates court (who, from being frequently thus vouched, tail, but also all remainders and reversions ex- is called the common vouchee) it is plain that pectant thereon. A common recovery is a suit or Edwards has only a nominal recompense for the action, either actual or fictitious; and in it the lands so recovered against him by Golding; lands are recovered against the tenant of the which lands are now absolutely vested in the freehold ; which recovery, being a supposed ab- said recoverer by judgment of law, and seisin judication of the right, binds all persons, and thereof is delivered by the sheriff of the county. vests a free and absolute fee-simple in the re

So that this collusive recovery operates merely coverer. There must be three persons at least to in the nature of a conveyance in fee-simple, make a common recovery, a recoverer, a reco

from Edwards the tenant in tail, to Golding the veree, and a vouchee, The recoverer is the purchaser.' plaintiff or demandant, that brings the writ of

RECOUNTY, v. a. 1 Fr. reconter. To relate entry. The recoveree is the defendant or tenant

RECOUNT'MENT. j in detail ; tell distinctly: of the land, against whom the writ is brought. relation; recital. The vouchee is he whom the defendant or tenant Bid him recount the fore-recited practices. voucheth or calls to warranty of the land in de

Shakspeare. mand, either to defend the right, or to yield him Tears our recountments had most finely bathed ;

When from the first to last, betwixt us too, other lands in value, according to a supposed As how I came into that desart place. Id. agreement. And, this being by consent and per Plato in T'imæo produces an Egyptian priest, who mission of the parties, it is therefore said that a recounted to Solon out of the holy books of Egypt the recovery is suffered.

story of the fluod universal, which happened long beThe operation of this legal fiction not being fore the Grecian inundation.

Raleigh. generally well understood, judge Blackstone has The talk of worldly affairs hindereth much, alendeavoured to explain it in detail.

though recounted with a fair intention : we speak Let us,' says he, in the first place, suppose willingly, but seldom return to silence. Taylor. David Edwards to be tenant of the freehold, and Say from these glorious seeds what harvest flows, desirous to suffer a common recovery, in order Recount our blessings, and compare our woes.

Dryden. to bar all entails, remainders, and reversions, and to convey the same in fee-simple to Francis

RECOURSE', n. s. Fr. recours ; Lat. reGolding. To effect this, Golding is to bring an

RECOURSE'FUL, adj. S cursus. Frequent pasaction against him for the lands; and he accord- sage; return ; renewed attack or application; ingly sues out a writ, called a præcipe quod

hence the common sense of application for help reddat, because those were its inițials or most

or protection ; access : recourseful is, moving operative words, when the law proceedings were

alternately. in Latin. In this writ the demandant, Golding,

The doors be lockt, alleges that the defendant, Edwards (here called

That no man hath recourse to her by night.

Shakspeare. the tenant), has no legal title to the land ; but

In that recourseful deep.

Drayton. that he came into possession of it after one Hugh Thus died this great peer, in a time of great reHunt had turned the demandant out of it. course unto him and dependance upon him, the house The subsequent proceedings are made up into a and town full of servants and suitors. Wotton, VOL. XVIII

2 E

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Preventive physic, by purging noxious humours soil is elevated, and produces sugar-canes, cocoa · and the causes of diseases, preventeth sickness in the nuts, pomegranates, Indian figs, &c. The inhealthy, or the recourse thereof in the valetudinary. habitants are well-made, robust, and full of viva

Browne's Vulgur Errours. city; their bodies were painted. The council of Trent commends the making recourse,

RECREMENT, n. s. ?

Lat. recrementum. not only to the prayers of the saints, but to their aid

} Dross ; spume ; suand assistance.


Stillingfieet. All other means have failed to wound her hcart, perfluity: drossy. Our last recourse is therefore to our art. Dryden. The vital fire in the heart requires an ambient

RECʻREANT, adj. Fr. recreant. Cowardly; body of a yiclding nature, to receive the superfiuous meanspirited; subdued; fallen; apostate.

serosities and other recrements of the blood. Boyle. Let be that lady debonaire,

RECRIM'INATE, v. n.& v.a. i Fr. recrimiThou recreant knight, and soon thyself prepare RecrimiNA'TION, n. s. I ner ; Lat. te To battle.


and criminor. To return one accusation with Dost

another; the accusation made in return. Thou wear a lion's hide? doff it for shame, And hang a calf's skin on those recreant limbs. It is not my business to recriminate, hoping suff

Shakspeare. ciently to clear myself in this matter. Stilling fleet. Who for so many benefits received

How shall such hypocrites reform the state, Turned recreant to God, ingrate and false, On whom the brothers can recriminate? Dryden. And so of all true good himself despoiled. Did not Joseph lie under black infamy? he scora

Milton, ed so much as to clear himself, or to recriminate the The knight, whom fate and happy chance shall strumpet.

South, grace

Public defamation will seem disobliging enough From out the bars to force his opposite,

to provoke a return, which again begets a rejoinder, Or kill, or make him recreant on the plain,

and so the quarrel is carried on with soutual recrimi. The prize of valour and of love shall gain. Dryden. nations.

Government of the Tongue. REC'REATE, v. n. Fr. recreer; Lat. re

RECRUIT, v. a., v. n., & n. s. Fr. recruter. RECREA'TION, n. s. To refresh ; re- To repair ; waste; supply an army; with new Recreative, adj. vive; relieve after or

men ; raise new soldiers; supply of any thing avert weariness; delight: the noun-substantive wasted. Pope has used it improperly for a suband adjective corresponding.

stitute of something wanting; a new soldier. . The chief recreution she could find in her anguish

He trusted the earl of Holland with the command was sometime to visit that place, where first she was

of that army, with which he was to be recruited and so happy as to see the cause of her unhap. Sidney.


Clarendon. I'll visit

Increase thy care to save the sinking kind, The chapel where they lie, and tears shed there,

With greens and flow'rs recruit their empty hives, Shall be my recreation. Shakspeare. Winter's Tale. Let the musick be recreative, and with some

And seek fresh forage to sustain their lives.

Dryden. strange changes.

Bacon. Take a walk to refresh yourself with the open air, With fresh recruits their youthful chief sustain ;

The pow'rs of Troy which inspired fresh doth exceedingly recreate the

Not their's a raw and unexperienced train, lungs, heart, and vital spirits.

But a firm body of embattel'd men.

Id. Let not your recreations be lavish spenders of your time ; but choose such as are healthful, recreative,

The French have only Switzerland besides their and apt to refresh you ; but at no hand dwell upon ties they meet with in getting thence a single regi

own country to recruit in ; and we know the difficul. them. Taylor.

Addison. He walked abroad, which he did not so much to recreate himself, as to obey the prescripts of his

phy He was longer in recruiting his flesh than was sician.

Fell. usual; but by a milk diet he recovered it. These ripe fruits recreate the nostrils with their aro

Wiseman matick scent.

More's Divine Dialogues. Her cheeks glow the brighter, recruiting their The access these trifes gain to the closets of ladies

colour ; seem to promise such easy and recreative experiments, As flowers by sprinkling revive with fresh odour. which require but little time or charge. Boyle.

Granville. You may have the recreation of surprising those

RECTAN'GLE, n. s. with admiration who shall hear the deaf person

Fr. rectangle ;

Lat. pronounce whatsoever they shall desire, without your ectangulus. A figure which has one angle or seeming to guide him. Holder's Elements of Speech. more of ninety degrees: the adjecure and ad

Nor is that man less deceived, that thinks to verb corresponding. maintain a constant tenure of pleasure, by a conti

Bricks moulded in their ordinary rectangular form, nual pursuit of sports and recreations : for all these things, as they refresh a man when weary, so they if they shall be laid one by another in a level fox weary him when refreshed.


between any supporters sustaining the two ends, then

all the pieces will necessarily sink. Wotton. RECREATION Island, a fertile island in the If all Athens should decree, that in rectangle tri. Southern Pacific Ocean, discovered in the year angle the square, which is made of the side that sub1722 by Roggewin. It is twelve leagues in cir- tendeth the right angle, is equal to the squares which cuit, and some of the ship's company obtained a are made of the sides containing the right angle, geoquantity of antiscorbutic herbs here, but ventur- metricians would not receive satisfaction without deing into the country, were assaulted by the na monstration,

Browne's Vulgar Erreurt. tives, who stoned some of them to death, and

The mathematician considers the truth and prowounded almost all. Many of the islanders perties belonging to a rectangie, only as it is in ea were killed in return by their fire-arms. The in his own mind.




RECTIFY, v.a. Fr. rectifier; Lat. rectus ral he does not concern himself about this, but
REC'TIFIABLE, adv. Cand facio. To make right; mixes it still stronger by alkaline salts, and dis-

RECTIFICATION. reform ; improve by re- guises its taste by the addition of flavoring inpeated distillation : rectifiable is, capable of be- gredients. The spirit loses in these processes ing rectified : rectification, is rectifying; repeat- the vinous character which it had when it came ed distillation. See below.

out of the hands of the malt distiller, and is in That wherein unsounder times have done amiss, all respects inferior, except in the disguise of a the better ages ensuing must rectify as they may.

mixed favor. The alkaline salts used by the

Hooker. rectifier, destroying the natural vinosity of the
It shall be bootless

spirit, it is necessary to add an extraneous acid That longer you defer the court, as well to give it a new one, and this is frequently what For your own quiet, as to rectify

is denominated in the shops spiritus nitri dulWhat is unsettled in the king. Shakspeare. cis,' and the common method of applying it is At the first rectification of some spirit of salt in a the mixing it to the taste with rectified spirit; retort, a single pound afforded no less than six ounces and it is said to be this that gives the English of phlegm.

The natural heat of the parts being insufficient flavor is, however, very apt to fly off, and ac-

malt spirit a flavor something like brandy, which
for a perfect and thorough digestion, the errors of one
concoction are not rectifiable by another. Broune.

cordingly experienced manufacturers recommend The substance of this theory I mainly depend on,

the addition of a proper quantity of Glauber's being willing to suppose that many particularities strong spirit of nitre, to the spirit in the still. may be rectified upon further thoughts. Burnet. By this means the liquor comes over impreg

if those men of parts, who have been employed in nated with it, the acid is more intimately mixed, vitiating the age, had endeavoured to rectify and and the flavor is retained. The action of the amend it, they needed not have sacrificed their good alkali is thus explained :—There is a greater sense to their fame.

Addison, attraction or affinity between the alkaline salt The false judgments he made of things are owned; and the water than between the water and the and the methods pointed out by which he rectified spirit, of course the salt combines with the them.


water contained in the spirit, and sinks with it RECTIFICATION is in fact a second distillation, to the bottom. in which substances are purified by their more With the spirit-gauge of Messrs. Borie and volatile parts being raised by heat carefully Poujet, the different degrees of spirituosity are managed. Sometimes indeed the rectifier has very easily ascertained by means of silver recourse to a third and even a fourth distillation, weights of various sizes; the heaviest is inwhen he wishes his spirits or goods, as they are scribed with the words Hollands' proof, and the technically called, to be very clean and pure. lightest three-sevenths. . The other weights serve

The objects of distillation, considered as a to mark the intermediate degrees between these trade, are chiefly spirituous liquors; and the two terms. Thus, if you screw to the end of distillation of compound spirits and simple the beam of the spirit gauge the weight denoting water, or those waters that are impregnated with Hollands’-proof, and plunge it into three-fifths, the essential oil of plants, is commonly called the instrument will descend in the liquid below rectification.

the degree marked on the scale Hollands'-proof, Malt spirit, and indeed spirits from other sub- bút it returns to that point on the addition of stances, must be brought into the state of alcohol, two-fifths of water, so that three-fifths spirit is before it is adapted to internal uses, after which thus transformed into Hollands'-proof spirit. If, it is said to be more fit for all the various inter- on the contrary, you screw on the three-fifths nal uses than even French brandy, it being by weight, and plunge the spirit gauge into Holthis purification a more uniform, hungry, taste- lands'-proof, it will rise in the liquor above the less spirit, than any other spirits which are fre- latter mark, and it may be easily carried down quently esteemed much better. A quarter of to that degree by the addition of alcohol or malt, according to its goodness and the season spirit of wine. When spirits are distilled for of the year, will afford from eight to fourteen the purpose of extracting alcohol, or spirit of gallons of alcohol

. The malt distiller always wine, the balneum mariæ is generally employed. gives his spirit a single rectification per se to The heat is then more gentle and more equal, purify it a little, and in this state, though cer- and the produce of the distillation of superior tainly not at all adapted to internal uses, it is quality. frequently and at once distilled into gin or other Alcohol, or spirit of wine diluted, is used as ordinary compound liquors for the common a beverage. It is the dissolvent of resins, and people. The Dutch never give it any farther constitutes the basis of drying varnishes. Spirit rectification than this :—They distil the wash of wine serves as a vehicle for the aromatic prininto low wines, and then at once into full proof ciple of plants, and is then called spirit of this spirit, from which they manufacture their cele- or that plant. The apothecary likewise employs brated Hollands' geneva, which they export to spirit of wine to dissolve resinous medicines. foreign countries. Malt spirit, in its unrectified These dissolutions are denominated tinctures. state, is usually found to have the common It forms the base of almost all the different sorts bubble proof, which makes it a marketable com- of beverage called liquors. It is sweetened with modity, and which is obtained by mixing with it sugar, or rendered aromatic with all kinds of a certain portion of the gross oil of the malt; substances of an agreeable taste or smell. Spirit this indeed gives the rectifier much trouble if he of wine preserves vegetable and animal subrequire a very fine and pure spirit, but in gere- stances from fermentation or putrefaction. To

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this end it is used for preserving fruits, vegeta- mixed with the essential oil of wine, may be let bles, and almost all the objects and preparations down to a proper standard with fair water; and relating to the natural history of animals. All the softness may, in a great measure, be obtained the liquors produced by the fermentation of by distilling and rectifying the spirit with a saccharine substances, yield alcohol. But the gentle fire; and what is wanting of this criterion quantity and quality vary according to the na in the liquor when first made, will be supplied ture of the substances.

by time; for it is time alone that gives this proIt is chiefly in consequence of the ascent of perty to French brandies, they being, at first, bodies of greater lixivity with certain bodies of acrid, foul, and fiery. But, with regard to the greater volatility that there is so much difficulty color, a particular method is required to imitate here of imitating the foreign vinous spirits of it to perfection, which may be effected by means other countries, as, for example, French brandies, of treacle or burnt sugar. and West-Indian rums. All these are remark The spirit distilled from molasses or treacle is able by the character of the essential oil that tolerably pure. It is made from common treacle, ascends with the spirit, and which gives it the dissolved in water, and fermented in the same peculiar flavor by which one spirit differs from manner as the wash for the common malt spirit. another. Now we can obtain an essential oil But if some particular art be not used in recti.. from any of the vegetables that furnish these fying this spirit, it will not prove so vinous as different spirits; but we cannot, as we have malt spirit, but less pungent and acrid, though seen, readily obtain a spirit. altogether taşteless, otherwise much cleaner-tasted, as its essential and destitute of some sort of essential oil still oil is of a less offensive favor. Therefore, if combining with it. Could we do this, we could good fresh wine-lees, abounding in tartar, be well manufacture to perfection an artificial Cogniac fermented with molasses, the spirit will acquire brandy or Jamaica rum; .but, as we cannot a greater vinosity and briskness, and approach wholly separate the inherent essential oil from nearer to the nature of foreign spirits. Where the purest and most colorless and most insipid the molasses spirit is brought to the common proof spirt we can obtain, when we add the essential strength, if it be found not to have a sufficient oil with which we mean to flavor it, the union of vinosity, it will be very proper to add some the two oils gives us a different result, and dulcified spirit of nitre; and, if the spirit be betrays the artifice to those who are acquainted clean worked, it may, by this addition only, be with the taste of the genuine material. made to pass for French brandy. Great quanti

In order, then, to prepare the oil of wine, or ties of this spirit are used in adulterating foreign of the grapes from which French brandies are brandy, rum, and arrack. Much of it is also distilled, which are generally the worst that the used in making cherry-brandy, and other corcountry affords; the best being selected for dials, by infusions ; but in them all many perthe process of wine itself, as yielding a far sons prefer it to foreign brandies. Molasses, ampler profit; take some cakes of dry wine-lees, like all other spirits, is entirely colorless when dissolve them in six or eight times their weight first extracted; but rectifiers always give it as of water, distil the liquor with a slow fire, and nearly as possible the color of foreign spirits. separate the oil, reserving, for only the nicest In a similar manner we may imitate foreign uses, that which comes over first, the succeeding spirits of all kinds. Thus, if Jamaica rum be oil being coarser and more resinous. Having our object instead of French brandy, it will procured this fine oil of wine, it may be dis- only be necessary to procure some of the tops solved in alcohol; by which means it may be of the sugar canes, from which an essential oil preserved a long time, fully possessed of all its being drawn and mixed with clear molasses flavor, but otherwise it will soon grow rancid. spirit, will give it the real flavor ; or at least a With a fine essential oil of wine, thus procured, flavor as true as a spirit not totally divested of all and a pure and tasteless spirit, French brandies essential favor of its own can possibly commumay be imitated to some degree of perfection. nicate. The principal difficulty therefore must The essential oil, it should be observed, must be still lie in procuring a spirit totally, or nearly, drawn from the same kind of lees as the brandy free from all favor of its own. to be imitated was procured from; that is, in To rectify their spirit into Holland gin, the order to imitate Cogniac brandy, it will be Dutch distillers add to every twenty gallons of necessary to distil the essential oil from Cogniac spirit of the second extraction, about the strength lees; and the same for any other kind of brandy. of proof-spirit, three pounds of juniper-berries, For as different brandies have different favors, and two ounces of oil of juniper, and distil with and as these flavors are entirely owing to the a slow fire, till the feints begin to ascend; then essential oil of the grape, it would be ridiculous change the receiving-can. This produces the to endeavour to imitate the flavor of Cogniac best Rotterdam gin. An inferior kind is made brandy with an essential oil procured from the with a less proportion of berries, sweet fennellees of Bourdeaux wine. When the flavor of seeds, and Strasburgh turpentine, without a drop the brandy is well imitated, other difficulties are of juniper-oil. This last is also a better sort, still behind. The flavor, though the essential and though still inferior to that of Rotterdam, part, is not the only one; the color, the proof, is produced in very large quantities at Welsoppe. and the softness, must also be regarded, before a It is remarkable that no one method of comspirit that perfectly resembles brandy can be binatory rectification, that is, of the rectification procured. With regard to the proof, it may be performed by means of salt, and other additions, easily accomplished, by using a spirit rectified is suited to all the several kinds of spirits; above proof; which, after being intimately scarcely indeed will any one way serve for any two;

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