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REAFFIRʻMANCE, n. s. Re and affirmance. character, 1 examine every letter of it, that it may A second confirmation.
not bear any resemblance to one that is real. Causes of deprivation are a conviction before the
Addison. ordinary of a wilful maintaining any doctrine contrary
I would have them well versed in the Greek and to the thirty-nine articles, or a persisting therein Latin poets, without which a man fancies that he without revocation of his error, or a reuffirmance understands a critick, when in reality he does not after such revocation. Ayliffe. comprehend his nieaning.
Id. REAGENTS, in chemistry, are such substances Realgar or sandaracha is red arsenick. Harris. as enable the experimenter to draw conclusions
Imaginary distempers are attended with real aud as to the nature of the bodies examined by unfeigned sufferings, that enfeeble the body, and
Blackmore. means of the alterations produced by the reagent.
dissipate the spirits.
The whole strength of the Arian cause, real or arIn the experiments of chemical analysis, the tificial; all that can be of any force either to concomponent parts of bodies may either be ascer
vince, or deceive a reader.
Waterland. tained in quantity as well as quality by the per The best account of the appearances of nature, in fect operations of the laboratory, or their quality any single instance human penetration can reach, alone may be detected by the operations of cer comes infinitely short of its reality and internal contain tests or reagents. Thus the infusion of galls stitution ; for who can search out the Almighty's is a reagent, which detects iron by a dark purple works to perfection?
Cheyne. or black precipitate; the prussiate of potash ex
I was really so diffident of it, as to let it lie by me hibits a blue with the same metal, &c. See these two years, just as you now see it.
These orators inflame the people, whose anger is
Swift. RE-AGGRAVATION, in the Romish eccle- really but a short fit of madness. siastical law, the last monitory, published after and to be more fond of every little ornament, than
They even affect to be more pleased with dress, three admonitions, and before the final excom
they really are.
Law. munication. Before they proceed to excommu Why really sixty-five is somewhat old. Young. nication, they always publish an aggravation, My neck may be an idea to you, but it is a reality and a re-aggravation.
Beattie. REAL, adj. Fr. reel; Lat. realis. REAL'ITY, n. s. Genuine; true; intrinsic; Coins.
Real, the name of a Spanish silver coin. See RE'Alize, v. a. \ relating to things, not to
REAL (Cæsar Vichard de St.), a French Re'ally, adv. persons; in law relating to REAL'gar, n. s.) things immoveable, as land, writer, who distinguished himself at Paris by &c.; reality is truth ; verity: something in- several ingenious productions, and died at
А trinsically important: 'to realise, to bring into Chamberry in 1692, at an advanced age. act or being; sometimes to convert money into Paris, in 3 vols. 4to., 1745, and another in 6 vols.
complete edition of his works was printed in land; sometimes to convert other property
12mo. into money : really corresponds with real : real
REAL (Gaspard de), lord of Curban and grand gar is a mlueral defined below. Many are perfect in men's humours, that are not
seneschal of Forcalquier, was born at Sisteron, greatly capable of the real part of business ; which
in 1682, and became distinguished for his poliis the constitution of one that hath studied men more
tical abilities. He wrote a Treatise on Govern-' than books.
Bacon. ment, in 8 vols. 4to., Paris, 1762, which was Put realgar hot into the midst of the quicksilver, much esteemed. He died in Paris in 1752. whereby it may be condensed as well from within as REALGAR, in chemistry and mineralogy, withont.
Id. the native sulphuret of arsenic. Nothing properly is his duty but what is really his REALISTS, a sect of school philosophers interest.
formed in opposition to the nominalists. See Of that skill the more thou knowest,
NOMINALISTS. Under the realists are included The more she will acknowledge thee her head,
the Scotists, Thomists, &c. Their distinguishing And to realities yield all her shows,
tenet is that universals are realities, and have an Made so adorn for thy delight the more. Milton.
We do bul describe an imaginary world, that is actual existence out of an idea or imagination ; but little a-kin to the real one. Glanville's Scepsis.
or, as they express it in the schools, a parte rei; Thus we realize what Archimedes had only in hy. whereas the nominalists contend that they exisé pothesis weighing a single grain against the globe of only in the mind, and are only ideas, or methods earth.
Glanville. of conception. Dr. Odo, or Oudard, a native We shall at last discover in what persons this ho- of Orleans, afterwards abbot of St. Martin de liness is inherent really, in what condition it is inhe- Tournay, was the chief of the realists. He wrote rent perfectly, and consequently in what other sense three books of dialectics, where, on the principles it may be truly and properly affirmed that the church of Boethius and the ancients, he maintained that is holy.
the object of that art is things, not words. I am hastening to convert my small estate, that is
REALM, n. s. Fr. roiaulme. A kingdom ; personal, into real.
Child on Trade.
a king's dominion. As a diocesan, you are like to exemplify and realize every word of this discourse. Smuth. Is there any part of that realm, or any nation There cannot be a more important case of con
therein, which have not yet been subdued to the science for men to be resolved in, than to know cer crown of England ?
Spenser. tainly how far God accepts the will for the deed, and They had gathered a wise council to thein how far he does not; and to be informed truly when Of every realm that did debate this business. men do really will a thing, and when they have
Shuksperire. really no power to do what ihey have willed. ld.
A son whose worthy deeds When I place any imaginary name at the head of a Raise him to be the second in that realm. Millon. VOL. XVIII.
Learn each small people's genius, policies, The rear admiral, an arch pirate, was afterwards
Darwin. But with a rearward following Tybalt's death, RE'ALTY, n. s. Ital. realty ; of Lat. re
Romeo is banished. Shakspeare. Romeo and Juliet. galitas. Loyalty to kings.
He was ever in the rearward of the fashion.
Coins I place in the rear, because made up of
Peacham, Remain not.
Milton's Paradise Lost, Realty means not in this place reality in opposition
Snowy-headed winter leads,
Waller. to show, but loyalty ; for the Italian dictionary ex
Yellow autumn brings the rear. plains the adjective reale by loyal.
Fled from his well-known face, with wonted fear, REAM, n. s. Sax. neam; Fr. rame ; Belg.
As when his thund'ring sword and pointed spear riem. A bundle of paper containing twenty Drove headlong to their ships, and gleaned the quires.
Dryden. All vain petitions mounting to the sky,
Rear, v. a. Sax. aræran; Isl. reira. To With reams abundant this abode supply: Pope.
raise up; move or life upwards; hence bring to REAN'IMATE, v. a. Lat. re and animo.
maturity ; breed; educate. To revive; restore to life.
All the people shouted with a loud voice, for the We are our reanimated ancestors, and antedate rearing up of the house of the Lord. 1 Esdras. their resurrection.
Granville's Scepsis. Down again she fell unto the ground,
In adoration at his feet I fell
Id. nex again.
Who now shall rear you to the sun, or rank King Charles was not a little inflamed with an
la. ambition to repurchase and reannex that duchy.
Into the naked woods he goes,
And seeks the tusky boar to rear,
They were a very hardy breed, and reared their to obtain or gather; to harvest : the reaper is he young ones without any care. who reaps; and the reaping-hook, his instru
Mortimer's Husbandry. ment.
Charity decent, modest, easy, kind,
Psalms. obliged to send their infants to be reared and edu-
Suift. your fields, is kept back by fraud.
James. He wants a father to protect his youth,
Thomson. reap what benefit the same is able to afford.
No flesh from market-towns our peasant sought;
Hooker. He reared his frugal meat, but never bought. From Ireland come I with my strength,
Shakspeare. early. A provincial word.
Then why does Cuddy leave his cot so rear ? Gay. Our sins being ripe, there was no preventing of Rear Guard is that body of an army which God's justice from reaping that glory in our calami
marches after the main body. The old grand ties, which we robbed him of in our prosperity.
King Charles. guards of the camp always form the rear guard
of the army, and are to see that every thing arMost plainly done by thieves with reapinghooks.
rives safe at the new camp.
REAR MOUSE, n. s. 'Sax. prere mus. The
Pope. To make my small elves coats. Shakspeare.
REAR'ward.) The hinder class; hinder thin kind of skin, like the wings of a bat or reartroop of an army, or the hinder line of a fleet :
Abbot. rearward is also used in these senses.
REASCEND', v. n. & v.a. Re and ascend. The standard of Dan was the rearward of the To climb again ; mount again. camp.
Numbers. When as the day the heaven doth adorn, He from the beginning began to be in the rear I wish that night the noyous day would end; wurd, and before they left fighting was too far off. And when as night hath us of light forlorn,
Sidney. I wish that day would shortly rascend. Spenser.
Taught by the heav'nly muse to venture down A good way distant from the nigra rupes, there
Abbot. He mounts aloft, and reascends the skies. Addison. Such a benefit, as by the antecedent will of Christ REA'SON, n. s., v. n. & v.a. Fr. raison;
is intended to all men living, though all men, by reaREA'SONABLE, adj.
Lat. ratio. The
son of their own demerits, do not actually receive the fruit of it.
White. REA SONABLENESS, R. s.
What the apostles deemed rational and probable REA'SONABLY, adv.
which men de
means to that end, there is no reason or probability REA'SONER, n. s.
duce conclu to think should ever in any produce this effect. REA'SONING, sions from an
Hammond. REA'SONLESS, adj.
argument; ra God brings good out of evil; and therefore it were tiocination ; discursive art; hence cause, con but reason we should trust God to govern his own sidered logically ; efficient or final cause;
world, and wait till the change cometh, or the reason reasonable or just claim, account, or practice;
Taylor. moderation: to reason is to argue; hence to
Is it reasonable when I reprove any vicious person debate; discourse; make enquiry ; argue ra
for dishonouring God, and dissuade him from his tionally or correctly; and to examine rationally be discouraged by my fine words,
but if I will go to
wicked courses, that he should tell me he will not (a gallicism): reasonable, reasonableness, and principles and first grounds he will hear me ? reasonably, correspond with reason as a noun
Bp. Taylor. substantive: reasoner is he who uses the faculty By indubitable certainty, I mean that which doth of reason; an arguer: reasoning is argument; not admit of any reasonable cause of doubting, which logic: reasonless, devoid of reason; causeless. is the only certainty of which most things are capaStand still, that I may reason with you of all the ble.
Wilkins. righteous acts of the Lord. 1 Samuel xü. 7. They thought the work would be better done, if
Jesus perceiving their thoughts, said, What reason those, who had satisfied themselves with the reaye in your hearts 1
Luke v. 22. sonableness of what they wish, would undertake She perceived her only son lay hurt, and that his the converting and disposing of other men. hurt was so deadly, as that already his life had
Clarendon. lost use of the reasonable and almost sensible part. Though brutish that contest and foul,
Sidney. When reason hath to deal with force ; yet so I was promised on a time,
Most reason is that reason overcome. Milton. To have reason for my rhyme :
Down reason taen, at least vain reasoning down. From that time unto this season,
Id. I received nor rhyme nor reason. Spenser. These reasons in love's law have past for good, Reason is the director of man's will, discovering Though fond and reasonless to some.
Id. in action what is good ; for the laws of well-doing The passive reason, which is more properly rea. are the dictates of right reason.
Hooker. sonableness, is that order and congruity which is I mask the business from the common eye impressed apon the thing thus wrought ; as in a For sundry weighty reasons.
watch, the whole frame and contexture of it carShakspeare. Macbeth. ries a reasonableness in it, the passive impression of When valour preys on reason,
the reason or intellectual idea that was in the artist. It eats the sword it fights with. Shakspeare.
Hale. Are you in earnest ?
To render a reason of an effect or phenomenon is -Ay, and resolved withal
to deduce it from something else more known than To do myself this reason and this right. Id.
Boyle. Reason with the fellow,
Virtue and vice are not arbitrary things, but there Before you punish him, where he heard this. Id. is a natural and eternal reason for that goodness Let all things be thought upon,
and virtue, and against vice and wickedness. That may with reasonable swiftness add
Tillotson. More feathers to our wings. Id. Henry V. When any thing is proved by as good arguments This proffer is absurd and reasonless. Shakspeare. as a thing of that kind is capable of, we ought not
That they wholly direct the reasonless mind, I am in reason to doubt of its existence. resolved ; for all those which were created mortal, If we can by industry make our deaf and dumb peras birds and beasts, are left to their natural appetites. Son reasonably perfect in the language and pronun
Raleigh's History of the World. ciation, he may be also capable of the same privilege It was a reasonable conjecture, that those countries of understanding by the eye what is spoken. which were situated directly under the tropic, were
Holder's Elements of Speech, of a distemper uninhabitable.
Id. Dim, as the borrowed beams of moon and stars Spain is thin sown of people, partly by reason of To lonely, weary, wandering travellers, the sterility of the soil, and partly their natives are Is reason to the soul : and as on high, exhausted by so many employments in such vast ter- Those rolling fires discover but the sky, ritories as they possess.
Bacon. Not light us here; so reason's glimmering ray Some man reasonably studied in the law, should be Was lent, not to assure our doubtful way, persuaded to go thither as chancellor.
Id. But guide us upward to a better day. Dryden. When she rates things, and moves from ground to Let it drink deep in thy most vital part ; ground,
Strike home, and do me reason in thy heart. Id. The name of reason she obtains by this ;
Chaucer makes Arcite violent in his love, and unBut when by reason she the truth hath found, just in the pursuit of it; yet when he came to die, And standeth fixt, she understanding is. Davies. he made him think more reasmably.
Id. The parliament was dissolved, and gentlemen fur The papists ought in reason to allow them all the nished with such forces, as were held sufficient to excuses they make use of for themselves; such as an hold in bridle either the malice or rage of reasonable invincible ignorance, oral tradition, and authority. people. Hayward.
Reason, in the English language, sometimes is REASSEMÖBLE, 0. a. Re and assemble. taken for true and clear principles ; sometimes for To collect anew. clear and fair deductions; sometimes for the cause, There reassembling our afflicted powers, particularly the final cause. Locke. Consult how to offend our enemy.
Milton. Every man's reasoning and knowledge is only
REASSERT', v. a. Re and assert. To assert about the ideas existing in his own mind; and our
anew; to maintain after suspension or cessation. knowledge and reasoning about other things is only
His steps I followed, his doctrine I reasserted. as they correspond with those our particular ideas.
Young Orestes grown By reason of the sickness of a reverend prelate, I have been over-ruled to approach this place.
To manly years should reassert the throne. Pope. Sprat.
REASSUME', v.a. Lat. reassumo; re and If we commemorate any mystery of our redemp
assume. To resume; to take again. tion, or article of our faith, we ought to confirm Nor only on the Trojans fell this doom, our belief of it, by considering all those reasons Their hearts at last the vanquished reassume. upon which it is built ; that we may be able to
Denham. give a good account of the hope that is in us.
To him the Son returned
Into his blissful bosom reassumed,
Milton. and well reasoned in every part, there is beauty in After Henry VIII, had reassumed the supremacy, such a theory.
Burnet. a statute was made, by which all doctors of the civil No man, in the strength of the first grace, can law might be made chancellors.
Ayliffe. merit the second; for reason they do not, who think
For this he reassumes the nod, so; unless a beggar, by receiving one alms can merit While Semele commands the god. Prior. another.
South. REASSURE', v. a. Fr. reassurer ; re and The most probable way of bringing France to rea assure. To restore from terror; free from fear. son, would be by the making an attempt upon the
They rose with fear, Spanish West Indies, and by that means to cut off Till dauntless Pallas reassured the rest. all communication with this great source of riches.
Dryden. Addison. Love is not to be reasoned down, or lost
REATE, n. s. A kind of long small grass In high ambition.
Id. that grows in water, and complicates itself toThe terms are loose and undefined ; and what less gether. becomes a fair reasoner, he puts wrong and invidious Let them lie dry six months to kill the waternames to every thing to colour a false way of arguing. weeds; as water-lillies, candocks, reate, and bul.
REAVE', v. a.
Sax. ræfian; To learned Epicurus; see the way
Dan. ræve. To take away by stealth or violence. By which this reasoner of so high renown
Dismounting from his lofty steed,
He to him leapt, in mind to reave his life.
Spenser. only to what the schools call ignoratio elenchi ;
Who can be bound by any solemn vow proving before the question, or talking wide of the To do a murderous deed, to rob a man, purpose.
To force a spotless virgin's chastity,
To reave the orphan of his patrimony, 'Twas there just and good he reasoned strong,
And have no other reason for his wrong
But that he was bound by a solemn oath?
Shakspeare. It would be well, if people would not lay so much
But these men knowing, having heard the voyce weight on their own reason in matters of religion, as
Of God, by some meanes, that sad death hath rent to think every thing impossible and absurd which The ruler heere ; will never suffer left they cannot conceive : how often do we contradict Their unjust wooing of his wife. Chapman. the right rules of reason in the whole course of our
Some make his meashy bed, but reave his rest. lives! reason itself is true and just, but the reason of
Careu. every particular man is weak and wavering, perpetually swayed and turned by his interests, his passions, sieur de), a celebrated French philosopher, born
REAUMUR (Renatus Anthony Ferchault, and his vices. A law may be reasonable in itself, although a man
at Rochelle in 1683. After the usual course of does not allow it, or does not know the reason of the school education, in the place of his birth, he lawgivers.
began a course of philosophy at Poitiers, and of The church has formerly had eminent saints in that civil law at Bourges ; but soon relinquished the sex ; and it may reasonably be thought that it is latter, to apply himself to mathematics, physics, purely owing to their poor and vain education, that and natural history. He repaired to Paris in this honour of their sex is for the most part confined to former ages,
1703, and was received into the Academy of Law.
Sciences in 1708. From that hour he was On the whole it appears, and my argument shows
With a reasoning the court will never condemn. wholly employed in natural history. The nuThat the spectacles plainly were made for the
merous discoveries he made in the various
branches of science are too numerous to detail. And the nose was as plainly intended for them. He discovered the Turquois mines in the late
Cowper. province of Languedoc; and his improvement Reason is that faculty or power of the mind on the art of converting iron into steel was rewhereby it distinguishes good from evil, truth warded by a pension of 12,000 livres.
It was from falsehood.
owing to his endeavours that there were es
tablished in France manufactures of tin plates When the merry bells ring round,
Milton. his name, and is pretty generally used on the
Dancing in the checkered shade. continent. Reaumur's is a spirit thermometer, REB'EL, n. s. & v. n. Fr. rebelle ; Lat. having the freezing point at 0°, and the boiling REBELLION, n. s. rebellis. A revolter; point at 80°.
He died in the seventy-sixth year REBEL'lious, adj. one who opposes lawof his age, on the 18th of October, 1757. He REBEL'LIOUSLY, adv. ful authority: to act bequeathed to the Academy of Sciences his Rebel'LIOUSNESS, n.s.) in opposition to such MSS., and his collection of natural productions. authority: rebellion is the revolt or insurrection His chief works are, a number of Memoirs made : rebellious means opposed to lawful auand Observations on different parts of Natural thority: the adverb and noun substantive corHistory; printed in the collections of the Aca- responding. demy of Sciences. A large work printed sepa From the day that thou didst depart out of Egypt, rately in 6 vols. in 4to., entitled A Natural His- until ye came unto this place, ye have been rebellious tory of Insects; which is much esteemed. against the Lord.
Deut, ix. 7. REAUMURIA, in botany, a genus of the
This our son is stubborn and rebellious, he will pentagynia order and pentandria class of plants ;
Id. xxi. 20. not obey our voice.
The merciless Macdonel natural order thirteenth, succulentæ : Cal. hexa
Worthy to be a rebel ; for to that phyllous; petals five: caps. unilocular, quin
The multiplying villanies of nature quevalved, and polyspermous. Species two only,
Do swarm upon him. Shakspeare. Macbeth. annuals of Syria. REBAPTÍZE', v. a.
Boys, immature in knowledge, Fr. rebaptiser; re and Pawn their experience to the present pleasure, baptize. To baptize again.
And so rebel to judgment.
Shakspeare. În maintenance of rebaptization, their arguments Such smiling rogues as these soothe every passion, are built upon this, that heretics are not any part of That in the nature of their lords rebels ; the church of Christ. Hooker. Bring oil to fire.
Id. King Lear. Understanding that the rights of the church were He was victorious in rebellions and seditions of observed, he approved of their baptism, and would people.
Bacon. not suffer them to be rebaptized. Ayliffe's Parergon. Where one shewed him where a nobleman, that
REBATE', v. n. Fr. rebattre. To blunt; had rebelliously borne arms against him, lay very beat to obtuseness.
honorably intombed, and advised the king to deface He doth rebate and blunt his natural edge
the monument; he said, no, no, but I would all the With profits of the mind, steady and fast.
rest of mine enemies were as honourably intombed.
Camden. Shakspeare. The icy goat, the crab which square the scales ;
Who could ever yet shew me a man rebelliously With those of aries trine consent to hate
undutiful to his parents that hath prospered in himThe scales of libra, and her rays rebate. Creech.
self, and his seed ?
Bp. Hall. My fagging soul flies under her own pitch,
Armed with thy might, rid heaven of these rebelled.
Milton. My senses, too, are dull and stupified, Their edge rebated. Dryden's Don Sebastian. Of their names in heavenly records now Their innocence unfeigned long joys afford
Is no memorial, blotted out and razed
Id. To the honest nuptial bed, and, in the wane
By their rebellion from the books of life. Of life, rebate the miseries of age.
Bent he seems
Philips. REBATE, or REBATEMENT, in commerce, a
On desperate revenge, which shall redound
Id. term much used at Amsterdam, for discount al
l'pon his own rebellious head. lowed on the price of several commodities, when How could your heart rebcl against your reason?
How could my hand rebel against my heart ? the buyer, insiead of taking time, advances ready
Part of the angels rebelled against God, and REBEC, or Rebeck, a Moorish word signi- thereby lost their happy state.
Locke. fying an instrument with two strings played on Thou, with rebel insolence, didst dare with a bow. The Moors first brought the To own and to protect that hoary ruffian; rebec into Spain, whence it passed into Italy, And, in despite even of thy father's justice, and, after the addition of a third string, obtained To stir the factions rabble up to arms. Rowe. the name of rebecca; whence the old English
This is not disobedience but rebellion ; 'ris disrebec, or fiddle with three strings.
claiming the sovereignty of Christ, and renouncing Rebec, ribibe, and ribible seem to be different all allegiance to his authority.
Rogers. names of the same instrument, and are often in
Shall man from nature's sanction stray,
Felton. discriminately used by Gower, Chaucer, and the
A rebel to her rightful sway? more ancient bards.
REBELLION (rebellio), among the Romans, As the head, or scroll-work, of old viols and was where those who had been formerly overviolins used to be curiously carved, so seems to
come in battle, and yielded to their subjection, have been that of the rebec. Chaucer compares made a second resistance; but with us it is gethe face of an old woman, an old trot, to the nerally used for taking up arms traitorously head of a rebec. See the example above.
against the king, whether by natural subjects, or RE'BECK, n. s.
Fr. rebec ; Ital. ribecca. A others when once subdued; and the word rebel three-stringed' fiddle.
is sometimes applied to him who wilfully breaks Brother, quod he, here wonneth an old rebekke,
a law. There is a difference between enemies That had almost as lefe to lese her nekke
and rebels. Enemies are those who are out of As for to geve a peny of hire good.
the king's allegiance : therefore subjects of the Chaucer. Cant. Tales. king, either in open war, or rebellion, are not the