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has not, upon the whole, succeeded, and the countries, at a comparatively moderate expense. original design of continuing it to Portsmouth It may be constructed in a much more expedihas been for some time abandoned. In the great tious manner than navigable canals; it mining districts on the west of the Severn, in- introduced into many districts where canals are cluding South Wales, the rail-roads are very nu- wholly inapplicable; and in case of any change merous; and here, owing to the steepness and in the working of mines, pits, or manufactories, impracticable nature of the ground, they have the rails may be taken up and laid down again been of essential utility in supplying the place in new situations at no very great expense or of canals. In 1791 there was scarcely a single trouble. railway in all South Wales, and in 1811 the In laying out a line of rail-way no further completed rail-roads connected with canals, col- general rule can be laid down than that regard leries, iron, and copper-works in the counties of should in the first place be had to such a direcMonmouth, Glamorgan, and Caermarthen, tion and such a declivity as may best suit the amounted to nearly 150 miles in length, exclu- nature of the ground through which it passes, sive of a great extent within the mines, of which and the trade to be carried on upon it. If the one company in Merthyr-Tydvil has thirty miles trade be all or chiefly in one direction, the road under ground. In Monmouthshire the Sirho- should of course decline that way, so that the way railway forms one of the first in Britain in waggons, with their contents, may descend on point of magnitude. It first extends thirteen this inclined plane as much as possible by their miles from Pilgwelly, near Newport, to the Sir- own weight. If the exports and imports be howay and Tredagar iron-works, whence it is con- equal, the road should be on a level; and, where tinued five miles farther to the Trevil lime-works, the ground will not permit that declivity or level in Brecknockshire, along with a branch to the best suited to the trade, the line should be varied, west, to the Romney and Union iron-works. and the inequalities made up, so as to bring it This railway was made by the Monmouthshire as near as possible to the proper standard. If Canal Company. A branch proceeds from the inequalities are such as to render this imSirhoway eastwards to the Ebbwy works, and practicable, the only resource lies in inclined thence down the course of the Ebbwy to Crum- planes ; for instance where the difference of lin Bridge, whence it joins the canal from New- level between the two extremities of the road is port; and, from Sirhoway again, the Brinare such as would render an equal declivity too railway is continued over the Black Mountain to steep, the road must then be carried either on a the vale of the Uske at Brecon, and thence to level or with the due degree of slope, as far as pracHay on the river Wye. In Glamorganshire the ticable, and then lowered by an inclined plane; principal railways are the Cardiff and the Mer- on which the waggons are let gently down by thyr Tydvil, the Aberdare and the Swansea. In means of a brake, are dragged up by means of Caermarthenshire the principal railway is that an additional power to that which draws them which runs from Caermarthen to the lime-works along the road, or at once let down and drawn near Llandebie, a distance of fifteen miles. up by means of a roller or pulley. Such are the chief rail-ways in England and The distance between the opposite rails of a Wales.

road varies generally from three feet to four and a In Scotland the duke of Portland's rail-road half feet, according as a long and narrow, or a from Kilmarnock to Troin, a distance of ten broad short waggon is preferred. A breadth of miles, is the principal work of this kind yet from nine to twelve feet therefore will be sufficiexecuted; but round Glasgow, and in the coal ent for a single road, and from fifteen to twenty fields of Mid Lothian and Fife, are several minor for a double one. The sleepers consist of solid lines.

blocks of stone, of the weight of one or two It is supposed that on a rail-way well con- hundred-weight; the base must be broad, and structed, and laid with a declivity of fifty-five the upper surface present an even basis for the feet in a mile, one horse will readily take down rail. They are to be placed along each side of waggons containing from twelve to fifteen tons, the road, about three feet distant from each other and bring back the same waggons with four tons from centre to centre; the opposite ones being in them. This delivity, therefore, suits well, separated by the width between the opposite when the imports are only one-fourth part of rails; the ground under them being rammed or what is to be exported. If the empty waggons beaten down to form a firm foundation; someonly are to be brought back, the declivity may times it is first laid with a coat of gravel or be made greater; or an additional horse applied refuse metal. The space between them is also on the returning journey will balance the in- rammed or filled up with firm materials. crease of declivity. If the length of the rail Two kinds of iron rails are in use, each of way were to be considered, it may, it is sup- which has its warm advocates ; the flat rail or posed, without much inconvenience, be varied tram plate, which being laid on its side, the from being level to a declivity of one inch in a waggon-wheels travel over the broad and flat yard, and by dividing the whole distance into surface, the other is termed an edge rail, the rails separate stages, and providing the number of being laid edgeways, and the wheels travelling horses suitable for each portion of rail-way ac on their upper surfaces The flat rail, or tram cording to the distance and degree of declivity, plate, consists of a plate of cast iron, about three the whole operation may be carried on with feet long, from three to five inches broad, and regularity and despatch. It is upon the whole from half an inch to an inch thick; extending believed that this useful contrivance may be from sleeper to sleeper, and having a flaunche varied so as to suit the surface of many difficult turn-up or crest on the inside, from two and a

half to four inches high. It bears on the sleep- iron has of late been used in the construction of ers at each end, where the rails are cast about these rails. Mr. Birkinshaw of the Bedlington half an inch thicker than in the middle, at least Iron-works has obtained a patent for broad topthree inches, and as there is no intermediate ped malleable rails of a wedge form. The pecubearing, except the surface of the road, the use liar shape is given them in the rolling of the of the fannche is to resist the transverse strain metal, by means of grooves cut in the rollers, arising from the weight of the waggon; on this corresponding with the requisite breadth and account it is often raised higher in the middle depth, and the curvature of the proposed rail. than at the sides, forming an arch, and, to This seems a very great improvement. strengthen the rail still farther, a similar flaunche, The Westminster Review, No. VIII., assigns arched inversely, is added below. The weight the merit of the invention of iron rail-ways to of each rail is from forty to fifty pounds. These Mr. Curr an engineer of Sheffield. We yet rails are merely laid to each other, end to end, expect, continues the reviewer, “to see them all along each side of the road; being kept in applied to some of the ordinary purposes of their places, and at the same time made fast to travelling. The first five miles of the Dover the sleepers, by an iron spike six inches long, road are maintained at an annual expense of driven through the extremity of each into a plug more than £1000 a mile, and this is chiefly of oak fitted in the centre of each sleeper. This caused by the sharp wheels of heavy stagespike has no head, but the upper end of it forms coaches. There would be no difficulty in giving an oblong square, about one inch broad, half an rails to this class of carriages, at least, as their inch thick ; and the hole in the rails, through rapidity is equable and their times fixed. A which it passes, is formed by a notch, half an separate rail might be applied to waggons which inch square, in the middle of the extremity of are equally regular in motion if not in speed; each rail; the opposite notches of each rail while an ordinary road might still be preserved forming, when laid together, an oblong square for vehicles of irregular rates and times.' of one inch by half an inch, and slightly dove RAIMENT, n. s. Abridged from Arraitailed from top to bottom, so as to fit exactly the MENT. Vesture; clothes ; dress; garment. tapering head of the spike, which is driven clear

His raiments, though mean, received handsomeness below the upper surface of the rail. When the by the grace of the wearer.

Sidney. rails cross a road, the space between them and O Protheus, let this habit make thee blush! on each side must be paved up to the level of Be thou ashamed that I have took upon me the top of the flaunches, that the carriages Such an immodest raiment.

Shakspeare. on the road may be enabled to pass clear

Living both food and raiment she supplies. over the rails. In single railways it is also ne

Dryden

You are to consider them as the servants and incessary to have a place at intervals where the

struments of action, and so give them food, and rest, empty waggons in returning may be conducted and raiment, that they may be strong and healthful off the road and allow the loaded ones to pass.

to do the duties of a charitable, useful, pious life. This place is termed a turn-out; and the wag

Lau. gons are directed into it by a moveable pointer

RAIN, n. s., v. Q., & v. n. Sax. or rail,' fixed at the intersection between the

nægn, Rain'BOW, n. S.

ren, nenian; principal rail and the turn-out, moving on its

RAIN-WATER,

Belg. and Teut. extremity, so as to open a way into the turn-out,

RAI'NY, and shut that along the road. This is also used rign. The water which falls in drops from the

regen; Goth. whenever one line of rail-way crosses another. Clouds; to fall in such drops ; ' it rains,' signifying These fat or tram roads are universal in Wales, that the water falls in this way from the clouds; and the principal ones used in Scotland. In the collieries of the north of England the formed on the clouds by the sun in showery

to pour down as rain : rainbow, the iris; the bow flat has been almost entirely superseded by the weather : rain-water, the water of the clouds ; edge rail, and the latter are admitted to be decidedly superior in ease of draught, the edge of rainy, showery; wet; damp; likely to rain. the bar presenting less friction, and being less

A continual dropping in a very rainy day, and

a contentious woman, are alike. liable to clog. The edge rail consists of a single

Proverbs xxvü. 15. rectangular bar of cast iron, three feet long, three or four inches broad, and from half an inch makes a perfect ruinbow, not more pleasant to the

Casting of the water in a most cunning manner, to an inch thick, set in its edge between the eye than to the mind, so sensibly to see the proof of sleepers, and bearing on them at its ends. The the heavenly iris.

Sidney. upper side of the rail is flaunched out to present When shall we three meet again, a broad bearing surface for the wheels; the under In thunder, lightning, or in rain. Shakspeare. side is also cast thicker than the middle. But

That which serves for gain the greatest strength is attained by casting the

And follows but for form, rail not 'rectangular, but deeper in the middle

Will pack when it begins to rain

And leave thee in the storm. than at the ends, which inay be safely reduced to nearly one-third of the depth in the middle.

Id. King Lear.

Rain sacrificial whisperings in his ear, The rails are set in a cast iron socket or chair,

Make sacred even his stirrup. attached firmly to the sleeper. This socket em

id. Timon of Athens. braces the extremities of the adjacent rails, which

To add another hue unto the rainbow. are here made to overlap, and a pin is driven

Sheakspeare. at once through the rails and through the socket, Court holy water in a dry house, is better than the so as to bind the whole together. Malleable rainwater out o' doors.

Id, King Lea.

Our gayness and our guilt are all besmirched, agitated sea, and is occasioned by the wind With rainy marching in the painful field.

sweeping part of the waves and carrying theni Shakspeare.

aloft, which when they fall down are refracted The rainbow is drawn like a nymph with large by the sun's rays, painting the colors of the bow wings dispread in the form of a semicircle

, the fea- just as in a common shower. These bows are thers of sundry colors.

Peucham. They sat them down to weep; nor only tears

often seen when a vessel is sailing with considerRained at their eyes, but high winds rose within.

able force, and dashing the waves around her, Milton.

which are raised partly by the action of the ship They could not be ignorant of the promise of God and partly by the force of the wind, and, falling never to drown the world, and the rainbow before down, they form a rainbow; and they are also their eyes to put them in mind of it. Browne. often occasioned by the dashing of the waves The lost clouds pour

against the rocks on shore. The colors of the Into the sea an useless shower,

marine rainbow are less lively, less distinct, and And the vext sailors curse the rain,

of shorter continuance, than those of the comFor which poor farmers prayed in vain.

mon rainbow; there are scarcely more than two

Waller. We took distilled rain-water.

Boyle.

colors distinguishable, a dark yellow on the side Like a low hung cloud it rains so fast,

next the sun, and a pale green on the opposite

side. But they are more numerous, there being That all at once it falls. Dryden's Knight's Tale. The wind is south-west, and the weather lowring, sometimes twenty or thirty seen together

. and like to rain.

Locke.

RAINOLDS (John), D. D., an eminent Eng. Rain is water by the heat of the sun divided into lish divine, born at Pinto in Devonshire in 1549, very small parts ascending in the air, till, encounter- and sent to Merton College, Oxford, in 1562. ing the cold, it be condensed into clouds, and de. He became fellow of Corpus Christi, where he scends in drops.

Ray. took his degrees. In 1598 he was made dean of Rain-water is to be preferred before spring-water. Lincoln, and in 1599 president of Corpus

Mortimer.

College. Queen Elizabeth offered him a bishopThis rainbow never appears but where it rains in ric, but he modestly refused it, saying in the sun-shine, and may be made artificially, by spouting up, water

, which may break aloft, and earnest, Nolo episcopali. He wrote and pubscatter into drops, and fall down like rain ; for the lished a great number of works, and was one of sun shining upon these drops, certainly causes the the learned divines employed by James I. to bow to appear to a spectator standing in a truc po

translate the Bible. He was moderately inclined sition to the rain and sun : this bow is made by re. to puritanism. He died in 1607. fraction of the sun's light in drops of falling rain.

Rainy River, a river of Illinois, which rises

Newton. near the west border of Indiana, flows W.N.W. The dome's high arch reflects the mingled blaze, and joins the Illinois, long. 88° 5' W., lat. 41 And forms a rainbow of alternate rays. Pope. 20' N.

Gay rainbow silks her mellow charms infold, Rainy Lake, a lake of North America, divided And nought of Lyce but herself is old.

Young. by an isthmus near the middle into two parts. Rain. See METEOROLOGY.

The west part is called the Great Rainy Lake, Rainbow, iris, is a meteor in form of a party- the east the Little Rainy Lake, being the least colored arch, or semicircle, exhibited in a rainy division. It is in general very shallow in its sky, opposite to the sun, by the refraction and depth. The broadest part of it is vot more than reflection of his rays in the drops of falling rain. twenty miles; its length, including both, about There is also a secondary, or fainter bow, usually 300 miles. In the west part the water is very seen investing the former at some distance. clear and good, and some excellent fish are taken Among naturalists we also read of lunar rain- in it. A great many fowl resort here at the fall bows, marine rainbows, &c.

Moose deer are to be found in This beautiful phenomen

penon has engaged the great plenty, and likewise the Carraboo, whose attention of all ages, and by some nations it skin, for breeches or gloves, exceeds by far has even been deified. The observations of the any other to be met with in North America. ancients and philosophers of the middle ages, RAIRY, a celebrated fortress of Hiuidostan, concerning the rainbow, were such as could not in Bejapore. It is situated on the top of a steep have escaped the uotice of the most illiterate hill, and was the favorite residence of the Malihusbandmen who gazed at the sky; and their ratta chief Sevajee. various hypotheses deserve no notice. Mauroly RAISE, v.a. Swed. resa; Dan. reisa ; cus was the first who pretended to have measured Rais'er, n. s. 8 Teut. reitzen ; Gr. speOiSw? the diameters of the iwo rainbows with much ex- To lift; heave; erect; exalt; set up; advance; actness; and he reports that he found that of the excite; irritate; rouse: he who raises. inner "bow to be 45°, and that of the outer bow

Raise not a false report. Exodus xxiii. 1. 56°; from which Descartes takes occasion to ob Take his carcase down from the tree, cast it at the serve how little we can depend upon the obser- entering of the gate, and raise thereon a heap of vations of those who were not acquainted with

Joshua viii. the cause of the appearances.

Psalm cvii. 28. See Optics, In

He raiseth the stormy wind. dex. The moon sometimes exhibits the pheno

Then shall stand up in his estate a raiser of taxes.

Daniel xi. menon of an iris or rainbow by the refraction of

They neither found me in the temple disputing her rays in drops of rain. This phenomenon in with any man, neither ruising up the people, Acts. the night-time is however very rare.

It is sown in dishonour, it is raised in glory; i The marine or sea rainbow is a phenomenon is sown in weakness, it is raised in power. which may be frequently ohserved in a much

1 Corinthians xv. 23.

of the year.

stones.

in the piece:

The spirits of the deceased, by certain spells and sweeter and pleasanter than those dried in ovens ; infernal sacrifices, were raised. Sandys's Journey. they are called jar raisins, from their being imported That eyeless head of thine was first framed flesh, in earthen jars.

Hill. To raise my fortunes. Shakspeare. King Lear. Dried grapes or raisins, boiled in a convenient He first raised head against usurping Richard. proportion of water, make a sweet liquor, which,

Shakspeare. being betimes distilled, affords an oil and spirit much Counsellors may mapage affairs, which neverthe like the raisins themselves.

Boyle. Jess are far from the ability to raise and amplify an RAISINS. To obtain fine raisins tie two or estate.

Bacon.

three bunches of grapes together while yet an They that are the first raisers of their houses are most indulgent towards their children. Id.

the vine, and dip them into a hot lixivium And drinke the dark-deepe water of the spring,

wood ashes, with a little of the oil of olives in Bright Arethusa, the most nourishing

it. This disposes them to shrink and wrinkle; Raiser of heards.

Chapman.

after this they are left on the vine three or four He that boasts of his ancestors, the founders and days separated on sticks in an horizontal situraisers of a family, doth confess that he hath less ation, and then dried in the sun at leisure, after virtue.

Taylor. being cut from the tree. The finest and best This gentleman came to be raised to great titles. raisins are those called in some places Damascus

Clarendon. and Jube raisins; which are distinguished from Thou so pleased,

the others by their size and figure; they are flat Canst raise thy creature to what height thou wilt

and wrinkled on the surface, soft and juicy Or union.

Milton.
He might taint

within, and nearly an inch long ; and, when fresh The' animal spirits, that from pure blood arise,

and growing on the bunch, are of the size and Thence raise distempered thoughts.

Id,

shape of the large olive. The raisins of the sun God vouchsafes to raise another world

are all dried by the heat of the sun; and these From him.

Id. with the jar raisins are the sorts used in mediHe out of smallest things could without end cine. However all the kinds have much the Have raised incessant armies.

Id. same virtues; they are all nutritive and balThe common ferryman of Egypt, that wasted over samic; they are allowed to be attenuant, are said the dead bodies from Memphis, was made by the to be good in nephritic complaints, and are an Greeks to be the ferryman of hell, and solemn stories ingredient in pectoral decoctions : in which raised after him.

Browne.

cases, as also in all others where astringency is The plate pieces of eight were raised three.pence not required of them, the stones should be care

Temple's Miscellanies.
Æneas then employs his pains

fully taken out.

RAKE, n. s., v. a., & v. n. Sax. pace; Belg: In parts remote to raise the Tuscan swains.

Dryden.
RAKE'ELL, n. s.

racche ; Swedish All gaze, and all admire, and raise a shouting

RAKE'HELLY, adj.
sound.

Id.
RA'KISH.

Teut, rechen. An These are spectres the understanding raises to instrument with teeth designed to collector itself, to flatter its own laziness.

Locke. scrape things together; hence (Fr. racaille, the Miss Liddy can dance a jig, and raise paste. rabble) both a rake, a low worthless fellow, and

Spectator. rakehell, according to Skinner, of the same sig, The Persians gazing on the sun,

nification : to rake is to gather or clear with a Admired how high 'twas placed, how bright it shone; rake; collect; and hence heap; scour : and, in But, as his power was known, their thoughts were nautical affairs, to fire so as to search a vessel :

raised, And soon they worshipped what at first they praised. tives both mean wild; dissolute.

as a verb neuter, to search; grope; the adjec

Prior.
I should not thus be bound,

At Midsummer down with the brembles and If I had means, and could but raise five pound.

brakes,

Gay. And after abroad with thy forkes and thy rakes. Britain, once despised, can raise

Tusser. As ample sums, as Rome in Cæsar's days. Mow barlie, and rake it, and set it on cocks. Id.

Arbuthnot. When Pas hand reached him to take
Such a bulk as no twelve bards could raise, The fox on knees and elbows tumbled down:
Twelve starveling bards in these degenerate days. Pas could not stay, but over him did rake,

Pope. And crowned the earth with his first touching crown. Gods encountering gods, Jove encouraging them

Sidney. with his thunders, and Neptune raising his tempests. Out of the frie of these rukehell horse-boys, grow.

ing up in knavery and villany, are their kern supRaiser of human kind! by nature cast, plied.

Spenser. Naked and helpless. Thomson's Autumn. I scorn the rakehelly rout of our ragged rltimers,

Content if thus sequestered I may raise which without learning boast, without judgment A monitor's, though not a poet's praise,

jangle, and without reason rage and foam. Id. And while I teach an art too little known,

An eager desire to rake together whatsoever might To close life wisely, may not waste my own.

prejudice or any way hinder the credit of apocryphal Cowper.

books, hath caused the collector's pen so to run as it RAI'SIN, n. s. Fr. raisin ; Arab. rasa; Lat. were on wheels, that the mind, which should guide racemus.

it, had no leisure to think.

Hooker. Raisins are the fruit of the vine suffered to remain What piles of wealth hath he accumulated ! on the tree till perfectly ripened, and then dried : How, i'th' name of thrift, grapes of every kind, preserved in this manner, are Does he rake this together? called raisins, but those dried in the sun are much

Shukspeare. Henry VIII,

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Id.

A dried grape:

Il you hide the crown

ter Raleigh, esq., of Fardel, in the parish of Even in your hearts, there will he raks for it. Cornwood. in Devonshire, was born in 1552.

Shakspeare. About 1568 he was sent to Ariel College OxThe king, when he heard of Perkins' siege of ford, but next year he embarked for France, Exeter, said in sport, that the king of råkehells was being one of the 100 volunteers, commanded landed in the West, and that he hoped now to see by Henry Champernon, who, with other Enghim.

Bacon. No breaking of windows or glasses for spight,

lish troops, were sent by queen Elizabeth to

assist the queen of Navarre in defending the And spoiling the goods for a rakehelly prank.

Ben Jonson.

Protestants. In this service he continued five or The blazing wood may to the eye seem great,

six years; after which he returned to London. But 'tis the fire raked up that has the heat,

In 1577 or 1578 he embarked for the Low And keeps it long.

Suckling. Countries with the troops sent by the queen to Harrows' iron teeth shall every where assist the Dutch against the Spaniards. On his Rake helmets up. May's Virgil's Georgicks. return to England, his half-brother, Sir HumA sport more formidable

phrey Gilbert, having obtained a patent to Had raked together village rabble. Hudibras.

colonise some parts of North America, he emO that thy bounteous deity would please

barked in this adventure; but meeting with a To guide my rake upon the chinking sound

Spanish fleet, after a smart engagement, they reOf some vast treasure hidden under ground.

turned without success in 1579. In 1580 Philip

Dryden.
Another finds the way to dye in grain ;

II. of Spain, having projected a conquest of EngOr for the golden ore in rivers rakes,

land, sent troops to Ireland to assist the DesThen melts the mass.

Id. Persius. monds in the Munster rebellion. Raleigh obOne is for raking in Chaucer for antiquated words, tained a captaincy under lord Grey of Willon, which are never to be revived, but when sound of then deputy of Ireland, and embarked for that significancy is wanting.

Dryden. kingdom; where he was greatly instrumental in The Belgians tack upon our rear,

putting an end to the war. He returned to And taking chase-guns through our sterns they send. England, and attracted the notice of queen

Id. Elizabeth, owing, as Naunton says, in his FragIll-gotten goods are squandered away with as menta Regalia, to an accidental piece of gallittle conscience as they were raked together. lantry. The queen taking a walk, being stopped

L'Estrange. by a muddy place in the road, our young gallant It is as offensive as to rake into a dunghill. South. He examines his face in the stream, combs his the ground. Her majesty trod gently over the

took off his new plush mantle and spread it on muefnl locks with a rake.

Garth, The next came with her son, who was the greatest venture. He was a handsome man, and remark

foot-cloth, surprised and pleased with the adrake in the place, but so much the mother's darling, that she left her husband for the sake of this grace able for his address. The queen admitted him less youth.

Addison, to her court, and employed him first as an atAfter having made essays into it, fas they do for tendant on the French ambassador Simier, on coal in England, they take into the most promising his return home, and afterwards to escort the parts.

Id. duke of Anjou to Antwerp. During this excurRakes hate sober grave gentlewomen. Arbuthnot. sion he became personally known to the prince

Men, some to business, some to pleasure take, of Orange : from whom on his return he brought
But every woman is at heart a rake.
Pope. special acknowledgments to the queen.

In The statesman rakes the town to find a plot.

1583 he embarked with his brother, Sir HumA rakehell of the town, whose character is set of phrey, on a second expedition to Newfoundland, with excessive prodigality, prophaneness, intempe

in a ship called the Raleigh, built at his own rance, and lust, is rewarded with a lady of great expense; but was obliged to return on account fortune to repair his own, which his vices had almost of an infectious distemper on board. He then rained.

Swift.

laid before the queen and council a proposal for As they rake the green appearing ground, exploring the continent of North America; and The russet hay-cock rises.

Thomson. in 1584 obtained a patent to possess such counThere seldom can be peculiarity in the love of a tries as he should discover. Accordingly he rakish heart.

Clarissa. fitted out two ships at his own expense, which To dance at publick places, that fops and rakes sailed in April, and returned to England in Sepmight admire the fineness of her shape, and the tember, reporting that they had discovered a beauty of her motions.

Law.

fine country called Windangocoa, to which the The Rake Of A Suip is all that part of her queen gave the name of Virginia. About this hull which hangs over both ends of her keel. time he was elected member for Devon, and That which is before is called the fore-rake, or soon after was knighted ; and, to enable him to rake forward, and that part which is at the set- execute his plans, the queen granted him a ting on of the stern-post is called the rake-aft, or patent for a licence on wine throughout the after-ward.

kingdom. In 1585 he sent a fleet of seven ships To Rake a Ship is to cannonade her on the to Virginia, under his relation Sir Richard stern, or head, so as that the balls shall scour Grenville, who left a colony at Roanah of 107 the whole length of her decks ; which is one of persons, under Mr. Lane; and from this colony the most dangerous incidents that can happen in he first imported tobacco into England. He a naval action. This is frequently called raking also obtained a grant of 12,000 acres of the forfore and and is similar to what is called by feited ds in Cork, was made seneschal of engineers enfilading.

Cornwall, and warden of the stanneries. In RALEIGH (Sir Walter), fourth son of Wal- 1587 he sent another colony of 150 men to Vire

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