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Raja, the ray fish, in ichthyology, a genug are very voracions, and feed on all sorts of flat belonging to the order of chondropterygia. There fish ; are particularly fond of herrings and sand are five spiracula below towards the peak; the eels; and sometimes eat crustaceous animals, body compressed; and the mouth is situated such as crabs. These sometimes weigh fourteen under the head. The most remarkable species or fifteen pounds, but with us seldom exceed
that weight. They begin to generate in June, 1. R. aspera, the rough ray, is found in Loch and bring forth their young in July and August, Broom in Scotland. The length from the nose which (as well as those of the skate), before they to the tip of the tail is two feet nine inches. The are old enough to breed, are called maids. The tail is almost of the same length with the body. thornback begins to be in season in November, The nose is very short. Before each eye is a and continues so later than the skate : but the large hooked spine; and behind each another, young of both are good at all times of the year. beset with lesser. The upper part of the body 4. R. electrica, the torpedo, cramp fish, or is of a cinereous brown mixed with white, and electric ray, is frequently taken in Torbay; has spotted with black; and entirely covered with been once caught off Pembroke, and sometimes small spines. On the tail are three rows of great near Waterford in Ireland. It is generally taken, spines; all the rest of the tail is irregularly like other flat fish, with the trawl; but there is beset with lesser. The fins and under side of an instance of its taking the bait. It commonly the body are equally rough with the upper. The lies in water of about forty fathoms depth ; and teeth are flat and rhomboidal.
in company with the congenerous rays. A gen2. R. batis,. the skate. This species is the tleman of La Rochelle, on dissecting certain thinnest in proportion to its bulk of any of the females of this species, on the 10th September, genus, and also the largest, some weighing nearly found in the matrices several of the fætuses quite 200 pounds. The nose, though not long, is sharp formed, and nine eggs in no state of forward. pointed ; above the eyes is a set of short spines; ness : superfætation seems therefore to be a pro the upper part is of a pale brown, sometimes perty of this fish. The food of the torpedo is streaked with black : the lower part is white, fish, such as plaice, surmullets, &c. They will marked with great numbers of minute black live twenty-four hours out of the sea, and but spots. The jaws are covered with small granu- very little longer, even if placed in fresh water. lated but sharp-pointed teeth. The tail is of a They inhabit sandy places, and will bury themmoderate length ; near the end are two fins; selves superficially in it, by Alinging the sand along the top of it is one row of spines, and on over, by a quick flapping of all the extremities. the edges are irregularly dispersed a few others. In this situation the torpedo gives his most forciIt is remarked that in the males of this species ble snock, which throws down the astonished the fins are full of spines. Skates generate in passenger who inadvertently treads upon him. March and April ; at which time they swim near In our seas it grows to a great size, and weighs the surface of the water, several of the males pur- above eighty pounds. The tail is thick and suing one female. They adhere so fast together round; the caudal fin broad and abrupt. The in coition that the fishermen frequently draw up head and body, which are indistinct, are nearly both together, though only one has taken the round; attenuating to extreme thinness on the bait. The females begin to cast their purses, as edges; below the body 'he ventral fins form on the fishermen call them (the bags in which the each side a quarter of a circle. The two dorsal young are included), in May, and continue doing fins are placed on a trunk of the tail. The eyes it till September. In October they are exceed- are small, placed near each other ; behind each ingly poor and thin ; but in November they is a round spiracle, with six small cutaneous begin to improve, and grow gradually fatter till rags on their inner circumference. Mouth small; May, when they are in the highest perfection. teeth minute, spicular; five openings to the The males go sooner out of season than the fe- gills, as in others of this genus ; the skin every males.
where smooth ; cinereous brown above, white be3. R. clavata, the thornback, is easily distin- neath. guished from the others by the rows of strong 5. R. fullonica, the fuller, derives its Latin sharp spines disposed along the back and tail. In a name from the instruments fullers make use of large one seen by Mr. Pennant were three rows in smoothing cloth, the back being rough and on the back, and five on the tail, all inclining spiny. The nose is short and sharp. At the towards its end. On the nose, and on the inner corner of each eye are a few spines. The memside of the forehead, near the eyes, were a few brane of nictitation is fringed; teeth small and spines, and the others were scattered without sharp. On the upper part of the pectoral fins are order on the upper part of the pectoral fins. The three rows of spines pointing towards the back, mouth was small, and filled with teeth ; the crooked like those on a fuller's instrument. On upper part of the body was of a pale ash color, the tail are three rows or strong spines; the marked with short streaks of black, and the skin middle row reaches up part of the back. The rough, with small tubercles like shagreen. The tail is slender, and rather longer than the body. belly white, crossed with a strong semilunar car- The color of the upper part of the body is cinetilage beneath the skin : in general the lower reous, marked usually with numerous black part was smooth, having only a few spines on spots ; the lower part is white. This, as well as each side. The young fish have very few spines most other species of rays, vary a little in color on them; their backs are often spotted with according to age. It grows to a size equal to white, and each spot is encircled with black. the skate. It is common at Scarborough, where This species frequent our sandy shores; they it is called the white hans or gullet.
6. R. pastinaca, the sting ray, does not grow described by Mr. Mitchell of New York, in a to the bulk of the others; the body is quite letter to the president of the New York Lyceum smooth, of shape almost round, and is of a much of Natural History :greater thickness and more elevated form in the • On the 9th day of September 1823 returned middle than any other ray, but grows thin to- from a cruise off Delaware Bay the fishing smack wards the edges. The nose is very sharp-point- Una. She had sailed about three weeks before ed, but short; the mouth small, and filled with from New York for the express purpose of granulated teeth. The irides are of a gold color; catching an enormous fish, which had been rebehind each eye the orifice is very large. The ported to frequent the ocean a few leagues betail is very thick at the beginning; the spine is yond cape Henlopen. The adventurers of this placed about a third the length of tail from the bold enterprise have been successful. The body; is about five inches long, flat on the top creature is one of the huge individuals of the and bottom, very hard, sharp-pointed, and the family of raia, or, perhaps, may be erected, from two sides thin, and closely and sharply bearded its novelty and peculiarity, into a new genus, bethe whole way. The tail extends four inches be- tween the squalus and the acipenser. Its strength yond the end of the spine, and grows very was such that, after the body had been penetrated slender at the extremity. These fishes shed their by two strong and well formed gigs of the best spines, and renew them annually; sometimes tempered iron, the shank of one of them was the new spine appears before the old one drops broken off, and the other singularly bent. The off; and the Cornish call this species cardinal boat containing the fishermen was connected, trilost, or three-tailed, when so circumstanced. after the deadly instrument had taken hold, with The color of the upper part of the body is a the wounded inhabitant of the deep, by a strong dirty yellow, the middle part of an obscure warp or line. The celerity with which the fish blue; the lower side white, the tail and spine swam could only be compared to that of the dusky. The weapon with which nature has harpooned whiale, dragging the boat after it with armed this fish has supplied the ancients with such speed as to cause a wave to rise on each many tremendous fables relating to it, which the side of the furrow in which he moved several reader may find in the works of Pliny, Ælian, feet higher than the boat itself
. The weight of the and Oppian.
fish after death was such that three pair of oxen, 7. R. oxyrinchus, the sharp-nosed ray, nearly one horse, and twenty-two men, all pulling togeseven feet long, and five feet two inches broad. ther, with the surge of the Atlantic wave to help, When just brought on shore it makes a remark- could not convey it far to the dry beach. It was able snorting noise. The nose is very long, par- estimated from this (a probable estimate) to row, and sharp-pointed, not unlike the end of equal four tons and a half, or perhaps five tons. a spontoon. The body is smooth, and very thin The size was enormous ; for the distance from in proportion to the size; the upper part ash- the extremity of one wing or pectoral fin to the colored, spotted with numerous white spots, and other, expanded like the wing of an eagle, meaa few black ones. The tail is thick ; towards sures eighteen feet; over the extremity of the the end are two small fins ; on each side is a back and on the right line of the belly sixteen row of small spines, with another row in the feet; the distance from the snout to the end of middle, which runs some way up the back. The the tail fourteen feet; length of the tail four feet; lower part of the fish is quite white. The mouth width of the mouth two feet nine inches. The is very large, and furnished with numbers of operation of combat and killing lasted nine small sharp teeth bending inwards.
The achievement was witnessed by 8. R. squalicornia, the shagreen ray, increases crowds of citizens on the shores of New Jersey to the size of the skate; is fond of launces or and Delaware, and by the persons on board the sand eels, which it takes generally as a bait. The flotilla of vessels in the bay and offing. During form is narrower than that of the common kinds; the scuffle, the wings, side-flaps, or vast alated the nose long and very sharp; pupil of the eye fins of the monster lashed the sea with such vehesapphirine, on the nose are two short rows of mence that the spray rained around to the disspines ; on the corner of the eyes another of a tance of fifty feet. semicircular form ; on the tail are two rows, con The following interesting account of the captinued a little up the back, small, slender, and ture of the colossal skate or ray is by lieutenant very sharp; along the sides of the tail is a row Lamont of the ninety-first regiment :of minute spines, intermixed with innumerable • The first appearance of an animal of this spelittle spiculæ. The upper part of the body is of cies,' says the lieutenant, “since I have been a cinereous brown, covered closely with sha- here (about eighteen months) was about two green-like tubercles, resembling the skin of a months ago, when I was called out to the beach dog-fish; the under side of the body is white; by some of the inhabitants, whom I found, on from the nose to the beginning of the pectoral going there, to be assembled in great numbers, fins is a tuberculated space. The teeth slender, to see what they called the sea devil. I confess and sharp as needles.
my curiosity was not less excited than theirs, 9. R. Banksiana, found often in the West when I saw floating close to the surface of the Indian Seas, Sir Joseph Banks informs us, is water, about twenty yards from me, a large mass sometimes so large that it requires seven pairs of living substance, of a dark color, but of the of oxen to drag it along the ground. A species shape and size of which I could not, at the time, of ray, probably the Banksiana, was killed on form any proper idea, it being so very differer the coast of America, the capture of which is thus from any thing I had ever before seen or heara
of, farther than that I supposed it to have been of him,—and rolling round and round to exinmany times the size of what I now believe it cate himself from the pole. This might be conwas. No time was lost in setting out in pursuit sidered as having given him the coup de
grace, of him, with harpoons, &c.; and it was not although, at short intervals afterwards, he was long before he was come up with, and struck struck with two more harpoons, and several with one of the harpoons ; when he made off musket-balls were fired into him. Still he was with great velocity, towing the boat after him. able to set out again, taking the four boats after As he seemed to incline chiefly to the surface of him, which he carried along with the greatest the water, six or seven more harpoons were, with ease. Having gone in this way for some time, the assistance of several canoes that had come he came to a stop, and laid himself to the bot. up, successively plunged into him, and all the tom, when, with all the lines that were attached boats made fast to each other, which he was to him, it was quite impossible to move him. All obliged to pull after him, with several people expedients were nearly beginning to fail, when each. Such, however, was the great strength of it was proposed to slacken the lines, which being this animal, that, after being fast in the manner done, had the desired effect, and he again set I have described for upwards of four hours, and out. Having thus got him from the ground, inch taking the boats out to sea attached to him, to a by inch was gained upon him, till he was got distance of about ten miles from the harbour, near the surface, when he was struck with two and having been pierced with so many wounds, large pikes. He now got rather faint; and, the he was still able to defy every effort to bring him boats closing on him on every side, the combat in. It had now got late, and was dark, and an became general with pikes, muskets, and every attempt was made to force him up near enough weapon we had. In fact, to such a pitch were to get another large harpoon into him: this was all excited on the occasion, that, had a cool no sooner done than he darted off; and, by an spectator seen the affray, he would undoubtedly almost unaccountable and seemingly convulsive have imagined that it was his sable majesty hiraeffort, in a moment broke loose from all his fet- self that we had got amongst us. He was now ters, carrying away with him eight or ten har- towed ashore, being about five hours since he poons and pikes, and leaving every one staring at was first struck. This it required all the boats his neighbour in speechless astonishment, con to do, and then but very slowly. His appearfounded at the power of an animal which could ance now showed the extraordinary tenacity of thus snatch himself from them at a time when life of which this animal must be possessed, as they conceived him completely in their power. his whole body was literally a heap of wounds,
Since then some of these animals have occa many of which were through and through, and sionally been heard of at a distance from the he was not yel quite dead. This circumstance, harbour; and a few days ago, in coming over with his great strength, is the cause of the name from fort Augusta with another gentleman, we which has been given him by the fishermen here, fell in with one of them, which allowed us to as they have never been able to succeed in taking get so near him that it was determined to set one of them, and were firmly of opinion that it out the next morning to look for him. We did was impossible to do so. so; and took with us several large harpoons, · This monster is of the flat fish kind. On muskets, pikes, &c., determined, if it were pos- measurement it was found to be in length and sible, to bring him in. He was descried, about breadth nearly the same, about fifteen feet, and eight o'clock, towards the top of the harbour, as in depth from three to four feet. It had the apusual floating near the surface, and moving pearance of having no head, as there was no proslowly about. Having allowed the boat to get minence at its mouth ; on the contrary, its extevery close to him, he was struck with a harpoon, rior margin formed, as it were, the segment of a which was thrown at bim in a most dexterous circle, with its arc towards the animal's body, manner by lieutenant St. John, of the royal ar and opening into a large cavity of about two feet tillery. He immediately set out towards the and a half in width, without teeth, into which a mouth of the harbour, towing the boat after him man went with so much ease, that I do not exwith such velocity that it could not be overtaken aggerate when I say that another night have by any of the others; after going in this way for done so at the same time. On each side of the nearly an hour he turned back, which enabled the mouth projected a mass of cartilaginous subother boats to lay hold; and four of themwere tied, stance like horns, about a foot and a half long one after the other, to the one in which he was and capable of meeting before the mouth. These harpooned, with four or five people in each of feelers moved about a great deal in swimming, them. By this means we hoped to tire him out and are probably of use in feeding. On looking the sooner. In about an hour and a half after he on this animal as it lay on the ground with its was first struck, a favorable opportunity offering, back upwards, it might be said to be nearly of a large five-pointed harpoon, made fast to a very equal dimensions on every side, with the excepheavy staff, was thrown at him with such an ele- tion of the two lateral extremities, extending to a vation that it should fall upon him with the point about four feet from the body, and a tail whole weight of the weapon. This, having been about five feet long, four inches and a half in as well directed as the first, was lodged nearly diameter at the root, and tapering to the point. in the middle of his back. The struggle he Above the root of the tail was the dorsal fin, and made at this time to get away was truly tremen on each side of it a flat and flabby substance dous,-plunging in the midst of the boats, lying close to the body, of the appearance of darting from the bottom to the surface alternate fins. There were no other distinct fins, and its ly,-dashing the water and foam on every side sole propelling power seemed to be its two late
ral extremities, which became very fiat and thin fort, now in ruins. Long. 81° 54' E., lat. 16° towards the point. As it shows these much in 59' N. swimming, it gives the spectator an extraordinary RAIANIA, in botany, a genus of the hexanidea of its size, as, when imperfectly seen, the dria order, and diæcia class of plants; natural conclusion naturally is, if the breadth is so great, order eleventh, sarinentaceæ : MALE CAL. sex parhow much greater must the length be. This tite: cor. none : FEMALE CAL. as in the male : animal was a female, and viviparous. On open cor. none; there are three styles ; the fruit is ing it a young one, about twenty pounds weight, roundish with an oblique wing, inferior. There was taken out, perfectly formed, and which has are three species :been preserved. Wishing to know what it fed 1. R. cordata. upon, I saw the stomach opened, which was 2. R. hastata,--and round, about eight inches in diameter, and quite 3. R. quinquefolia. empty. It was closely studded over with cir RAJ CHOHAN,an extensive uncultivated district cular spots of a muscular substance. Under the of Hindostan, province of Gundwaneh, situated stomach was a long bag, with transverse muscu between 23° and 24° N. lat. It produces little lar layers from end to end, and which contained but rice and vegetables, but abounds with game. nothing but some slime and gravel. This mus- The greater part belongs to the rajah of Corair, cular appearance of the digestive organs would a tributary of the Mahrattas. The chief town lead one to suppose that it fed upon other fish, is Sonehui. as is the general opinion here, though its having RAJEMAL, or RAJEMAHAL, an unproductive no teeth does not support that idea. Its weight district of Bengal, situated on the western side was so great that it was impossible to ascertain of the river Ganges, about 25° N. lat. It is init at the time; but some idea may be formed of habited by a race of small people, probably the it, when I assure you that it was with difficulty aborigines, who speak a distinct language, and, that forty men, with two lines attached to it, although idolaters, cannot be esteemed Hindoos. could drag it along the ground. Its bones were They have never been conquered; but about soft, and, with the exception of the jaw bones, the year 1780 Mr. Cleveland subdued them by could be cut with a knife. One ridge of bone gentle measures. He formed a battalion of them, ran from the mouth to the middle of the back, consisting of 300 men, who have proved exceedwhere it was met by another running transverse- ingly useful. It was in this district that the exly, from the extremities of which there were two periment was first tried of granting lands to the larger ones converging towards the tail.' native invalid officers and soldiers; and the tra
RAJABARY, a considerable trading town of veller now passes with as much safety from Bengal, district of Dacca, on the western bank human foes in this district as in any other part of the majestic river Megna. Long. 96° 21' E., of India. It still, however, shelters a vast numlat. 23° 25' N. There are innumerable towns in ber of tigers, bears, and wild beasts. Hindostan to which Rajah (a prince) is the pre RAJEMAHAL, the royal residence, an ancient
city of Bengal, on the western bank of the RAJA MUNDROOG, a town and fortress of Ganges. The modern town consists only of one Hindostan, province of Bejapore, commands the street, at the foot of a range of hills, and composed entrance into the mivigable river Mirjee. It was of stone houses, generally two stories in height, taken by the British troops under general Mat- and the ruins of a palace. It carries on a small thews in 1783, but afterwards ceded to Tippoo. trade with the inhabitants of the hills, and quarLong. 73° 30° E., lat. 14° 30' N.
ries supply the neighbourhood with flags and RAJAMUNDRY, an extensive district of millstones. An inundation of the Ganges forHindostan, province of the Circars, bounded on merly swept away a considerable part of it; a the north by Cicacole, on the south by Ellore, conflagration destroyed another portion; and the on the west by the territories of the Nizam, and transfer of the seat of government to Decca comon the east by the bay of Bengal. It is fertilised pleted its ruin. by the Godavery, which partly forms its southern Nothing can exceed the romantic prospect of boundary. At the distance of thirty-five miles Rajemahal, with the mountains at the back of from the sea it divides itself into two great the town, when a person, emerging from the branches, within which it forms the island of Cossimbazar River and the flat country of BenNagur, comprehending a triangular space of gal, enters the Ganges at Sooty, and sails up that 500 square miles. This district is celebrated for river. There is a tradition that this place was its sugar. The mountains also abound with teak in very aucient times the seat of a Hindoo timber. It contains a number of towns, the government, and was then called Raje Girhi, or chief of which is Rajamundry; but the principal Ghur. It was first noticed by the Mahometan sea-port is Coringa. This district was ceded by historians, in the year 1576, under the name the Nizam Salabut Jung in 1753 to the French; of Agmahel (the house of fire), probably in allubut was taken from them by the British in 1765, sion to an early conflagration. In 1592 rajah and now constitutes one of the five collectorships Man Sing, governor of Bahar and Bengal, on of the province. The rajahs of this country are the part of the emperor Akbar, fixed upon this mentioned in the Mahometan histories as early place as the capital or the two provinces, and as the thirteenth century.
named it in compliment to his sovereign, AkbatRAJAMUNDRY, the capital of the above-men- nagur Rajemahal. He in consequence erected tioned district, and residence of the British civil a palace and a stone wall here, having bastions establishment, is situated on the north side of the at the angles and gates; and, having drawn Godavery, and formerly possessed a good brick hither all the public offices, the city soon rose in
splendor. In 1608 the Mogul governor, Islam Rail, n. s. & v. n. Teut. riegel ; Swed. regel. Khan, was induced, in consequence of the inva- A cross beam fixed at the ends in posts; a se sion of the south-east of Bengal by the Portu- ries of rails; to enclose with rails; confine.' guese, to transfer the seat of authority to Dacca.
A man upon a high place without rails, is ready to But in 1639 Shujaa, the son of Shah Jehan, fall.
Bacon. again restored Rajemahal to its former dig They were brought to London all railed in ropes, nity, and built an elegant palace here, some of like a team of horses in a cart, and were executed the rooms of which are standing. He also some at London, and the rest at divers places. Id. strengthened the fortifications, and spent large The hand is square, with four rounds at the corsums of money in rendering the city worthy of the ners ; this should first have been planched over, and royal residence : in the following year, however, railed about with ballisters.
Cure. nearly, the whole was destroyed by a dreadful A large square table for the commissio iers, ne conflagration, in which many lives were lost, and side being sufficient for those of either party, and a
Clarendon. the family of the prince with difficulty escaped. ruil for others which went round. About the same time the Ganges changed its
If you make another square, and also a tendant, bed, and, pouring its torrents against the walls, mortess on the top and bottom rails, you may put
on each untennanted end of the stiles, and another washed away many of the edifices. In 1659 them together.
Moson. Aurungzebe took it after a short siege. After
As the churchyard ought to be divided from other the expulsion of Shuja, the Mogul governor, profane places, so it ought to be fenced in and railed. Meer Joomla, fixed his residence at Dacca, since
Ayliffe. which period Rajemahal has steadily declined. Sir Roger has given a handsome pulpit-cloth, and RAIKES (Robert), a printer and philanthro- railed in the communion table.
Addison. pist of Gloucestershire, born in 1735. His father
Rail Roads. These useful appendages to minwas proprietor of the Gloucester Journal, and ing and various other works have been in use in the son succeeded him. Having realised a pro- the neighbourhood of Newcastle since the middle perty, he employed it in relieving such objects of the seventeenth century. They were first as stood in need of his assistance; but is best solely employed for transporting coals to a mo known for his institution of Sunday schools, derate distance from the pits, to the places where which he planned conjointly with the Rev. Mr. they could be shipped, being universally made Stock in 1781. See Education. Mr. Raikes of wood. “And long,' says Dr. Anderson, 'had died at Gloucester in 1811.
they been applied to this use, without any idea RAIL, n. s. Belg. ragle. A kind of bird.
having been entertained that they could be emOf wild birds Cornwall hath quail, rail, partridge ployed for more general purposes. By degrees and pheasant. Carew's Survey of Cornwall. they were, however, carried to a farther extent;
Rail, v. n. Fr. railler; Belg. rallen ; the scarcity of wood, and the expense of their Rall'ER, n. S. Swed. ralla. To use reproach- repairs, suggested the idea of employing iron for
Raul'tery. Sful language; accuse 5 speak the purpose of improving these roads. At the to or mention in opprobrious terms; formerly first, flat rods of bar-iron were pailed upon the taking on now ut: a railer is he who insultingly original wooden rails, or, as they were techniaccuses or defames : raillery, a diminutive of cally called, sleepers; and this, though an exrailing ; slight satirical speech or manner. pensive process, was found to be a great im
provement. But, the wood on which these Angels bring not railing accusation against them.
rested being liable to rot and give way, some im
2 Peter ii. What a monstrous fellow art thou! thus to rail on cast-iron, but these were found to be liable to
perfect attempts were made to make them of one that is neither known of thee, nor knows thee.
many objections, until Mr, Outram, engineer, at Till thou canst rail the seals from off my bone, Butterly Hall, Derbyshire, devoted his attenThou but offendest thy lungs to speak so loud. Id. tion to this object. He contrived at the same The plain the forests doth disdain :
time so far to diminish the expense, and improve The forests rail upon the plain. Drayton. the strength of the road, as to bring it to a deLet raillery be without malice or heat.
gree of perfection that no one else had conBen Jonson. ceived possible.
Having been carried into Thou art my blood, where Johnson has no part; execution in a few cases, and found to answer, Where did his wit on learning fix a brand,
his plan has been improved upon and simplified And rail at arts he did not understand ? Dryden. by practice, till it is now evident that it admits If any is angry, and rails at it, he may securely. of being carried much beyond even its present
Locke. limits. If I build my felicity upon my reputation, I am as We cannot particularize the numerous exists • happy as long as the railer will give me leave. ing rail-roads : but the chief lines that have
South's Sermons. been laid down are found in the neighbourhood of Studies employed on low objects; the very naming the river Wear, near Newcastle, in the coal and of them is suthicient to turn them into raillery.
mining districts of Yorkshire and Lancashire, in
Addison. To these we are solicited by the arguments of the in the great mining districts along the vale of
Derbyshire, Staffordshire, and Shropshire; and subtile, and the railleries of the profane.
the Severn. Here it was that the inclined plane Lesbia for ever on me rails,
was first brought in aid of inland navigation. In To talk of me she never fails, Swift. Surrey there is a railway of considerable extent, Let not presuming impious ruiler tax that presents one of the few attempts that have Creative wisdomn.
Thomson's Summer. been made to adapt rail-roads to general use. It