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tion at Beloit until called to the State University. Here he continued his valuable services in the department to which he had been called until disabled by the disease which terminated his useful life December 25, 1854, the first of the professors of the University to die while in office. “In the decease of Professor Lathrop," said the regents, "the University lost the service of an able and devoted officer; the agricultural interest, a scientific friend; and the state, a useful and influential citizen." As an instructor, he was well versed in all matters appertaining to his department,- enthusiastic in his devotion to science, and apt in engaging the interest of his pupils. For the study of natural history, in all its branches, he had a peculiar fondness. He was a close observer. Rocks, minerals, shells; the diverse forms of vegetable life; beasts, birds, insects; — all engaged his attention.
As a writer, Prof. Lathrop was vigorous but not poetical. His thoughts, though frequently effective, were always expressed in plain words. The following is from an unpublished lecture of his upon chemistry: “It is in the enlarged views which science gives that we first learn duly to appreciate the Deity. Eternity, infinity, omnipotence, are attributes so astounding to human faculties, that we can only arrive by steps at the most moderate apprehension of them. 'Jacob's ladder must stand upon the earth in order to reach heaven.' What more worthy employment, then, can man find for his faculties than the investigation of these hidden forces that tell in so plain a a language of the mighty power which called them into action ? Before such knowledge, superstition necessarily fades like darkness before the sun.” —C. W. BUTTERFIELD, in University Press.
The secret of securing order is to secure interest. An idle child cannot keep quiet.
LEISURE is sweet to those who have earned it, but burdensome to those who get it for nothing.
He that studies books alone will know how things ought to be. He that studies men will know how things are.
If you wish to do good, do good. If you wish to assist people, assist people. The only way to do a thing is to do it.
It is one of the most beautiful compensations in this life, that we cannot sincerely try to help another without helping ourselves.
THE EDUCATIONAL PLATFORM. When politicians desire to produce a change, which they claim will effect an improvement in the physical well being of the people, they state with clearness the objects at which they aim. They fix a platform and organize all who agree to it on that platform. This platform must announce practicable desires and views, or nothing will result. In this world, things do not right themselves; those who compose the educational party must agree upon certain principles and disseminate them; must write and speak upon them; have campaign documents written to show their importance and finally NEVER cease DISCUSSION until victory is reached. Consider the following:
1. That only those persons who have demonstrated by EXPERIENCE their ability to teach shall be employed as teachers. REMARKS. -- That is, the present plan of judging whether a person has the power to teach, by the scholarship he may have, is radically wrong, always has been and always will be. How a successful experience shall be gained is the business of normal and training schools. But an experience must be gained, and a successful one, too. The teacher is allowed in the school room for the benefit of the children solely.
2. That when a teacher has been appointed to a place, he shall have a guarantee of permanence. REMARKS.— The present plan of changing teachers at the end of each year, if not each session, grows out of the fact, mainly, that inexperienced persons are employed — the parents naturally are tired of the experimenting, and so are the scholars; beside that, there is far too much dictation by meddlesome parents and politicians. What other laborers are so kicked about? Not the clerks nor the kitchen girls. It is plain that some body of persons besides the “trustees” should have a word to say on this question. To put a man in the school in the winter and a woman in the summrr, is only another phase of this ridiculous business. This movableness is the sure means of driving away good teachers and keeping those who have little spirit and dignity. Away with it!
3. Superintendents of schools must be men or women who have had at least five years of successful experience as teachers and possess a state certificate, or diploma from a normal school or college. REMARKS. - When these persons are appointed on account of their fitness, dignity will be given to the whole business. Put in a seven-by-nine superintendent because he is a Democrat or Republican who cannot get any other office, and all the schools suffer, and the whole cause
suffers. Yet this is constantly done. The case is a rare exception where these officers are not chosen by political influence; if they are good men it is accidental. A rascally state of things for the nineteenth century!
4. That the normal schools, where the science and art of education can be learned, should be increased to an extent sufficient to supply all of the schools of the State with teachers. REMARKS. — The connection of high schools or academic departments with normal schools, while once necessary, is now needed no longer. Let those who want to teach prepare themselves on the subjects which they will be required to teach, so that they can give their time to study the Art and Science of Teaching. Normal schools should be increased. New York State neede twenty-five such schools, and it could carry them on with $250,000. It now spends $160,000 on eight. Three or four men would manage such a school splendidly if the Academic Departments were cut off. There is no objection to these existing in the same building for the use of the locality. What is wanted is that each normal school shall furnish us with teachers, not with those who have been drilled on arithmetic, geography, etc. Other schools can do that as well or even better. Our schools must get up higher if they intend to do the good they might do.
5. The teachers must receive a fair salary, to be paid in monthly installments. REMARKS. — The value the people set on education is measured by what they pay their teacher - all long-winded talks and snuffling to the contrary notwithstanding. Teachers are now meanly paid. Trinity Church pays its head gardener $2,500 — the head teachers of its schools $2,000! No country can prosper that under-values and under-pays its teachers. It would aid very much to compare the amounts paid per scholar, and hence these should be reported. In other words, one town pays $12 per scholar per annum, another $24. Why this difference? A quotation of rates will assist many a stingy district to know how much it can afford to pay.
6. There must be ability and permanence in all the offices from the State Superintendent down. REMARKS. — One official hardly becomes acquainted with his duties before another intrigues for his place. Hence there is no persistent nor long continued effort. All is in a state of change. It resembles the child's planting a seed and digging it up in a few days to see if it has grown!
7. The teachers and friends of education must each and all take hold of the work of organizing the educational party of the country and di
2-Vol. IX.--No. 6
rect its movements. REMARKS. There are a million of adult persons who are interested in the welfare of our public schools. But many never have moved an atom to help forward education. They will rail because they get no larger salaries, but they will do absolutely nothing to increase that public sentiment that regulates salaries. The teachers should at once begin to wake up from their Rip Van Winkle sleep, and begin to act. — N. Y. School Journal.
EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF ONTARIO.
The public educational institutions of Ontario may be divided into three classes — the Common or Public school, the High school, and the University.
The Public school closely resembles that of the United States. It is free to all, and is sustained principally by the municipality in which it is situated, although deriving considerable support from the Provincial Government and the County Council. For the greater efficiency of these schools, inspectors are appointed whose duty it is to visit each school twice a year, and to report to the government concerning its efficiency. Each county has at least one inspector. These inspectors are at the head of Local Boards of Examiners who have to conduct certain examinations.
If a pupil of a Public School desires to enter a High school or Collegiate Institute (a Collegiate Institute is merely a large High school), he must pass an examination which occurs uniformly throughout the province twice a year. The local boards of examiners mentioned above, examine the papers handed in by the candidates. The questions, however, are set by a central board, called the Central Committee. The local boards send in their reports, accompanied by the papers handed in by the candidates, to the central committee, who, if so disposed, also examine the papers.
The examination next above the entrance to High schools is that for third class certificates. This occurs once a year, and is generally called the non professional examination. For third class certificates, it is conducted in the same manner as that for entrance into High schools.
After passing this examination, the person intending to teach has to attend a County Model school for three months, when he passes what is called the professional examination, and is allowed to teach.
These model schools, though but lately established, have already done good work, and promise to be an important factor in increasing the efficiency of our public schools. They are far from being expensive, and are really public schools which fill certain regulations enjoined by law.
A third class certificate is good for three years, and if a person at the end of that time does not obtain a second class he must pass out from the profession.
In order to obtain a second class certificate it is necessary to pass a second class non-professional examination, and then attend one of the two Normal Schools for three months. After teaching three years he is allowed to try an examination for a first class certificate, and, if successful, is held duly qualified for the position of Inspector of Public Schools, and, in fact, for every position in the teaching profession except that of Head Master of a High school which must be filled by a graduate of some university in the British dominions.
Many students never pass their non-professional third class examination at all, but study till they are able to pass the intermediate or second class non-professional examination, after which, if they desire to teach, they may attend a County Model school, and after teaching one year may attend a Normal School and obtain a second class certificate.
A third class teacher can teach only in his own county, while second and first class certificates are good for the whole Province.
A striking feature of the school system of Ontario is the way in which the High School leads up to the University. A certain amount of money is every year distributed amongst the High schools of the Province. The division of this grant is based partly on the report of the three High School Inspectors, and partly on the average attendance. For the better distribution of this grant the High school is divided into the upper and lower schools, a pupil in the upper school bringing more money than one in the lower. All pupils who have passed the intermediate or second class examination are in the upper school, and all others are in the lower.
The work required of candidates for the intermediate is, as far as it goes, exactly the same as that required for matriculation in Toronto University; for instance, next June the examination in English Literature for matriculation at the above University will be Milton's Paradise Lost, Books I and II, and that of the Intermediate will be the second book of the same poem.