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(Courtesy of Willys-Overland Co., Toledo, Ohio.)

Tire Chains.For driving in winter, or on slippery roads, the use of tire chains is advisable. The chains should be properly adjusted. When they are applied too tightly they will cut the tread and render it useless in a short time. Adjust the chains so that they will shift around over the tread, to distribute the wear.

In an emergency, as when the car has become mired, or the road is so slippery that the wheels cannot secure sufficient hold to move the car, a rope wound around the rear wheel in between the spokes will be found a simple and effective means of getting started.

Non-freezing Cooling Solutions. Whenever the temperature approaches 40 degrees Fahrenheit above zero, the cooling system should be made frost-proof by mixing a non-freezing substance with the water. Wood alcohol or denatured alcohol is best for that purpose.

The following table may be used in estimating the quantity of alcohol required for different temperatures:

Model 69-Capacity of Cooling System 434 Gallons. 4 pints alcohol added to the water will not freeze at 10 degrees

Fahrenheit above zero. 712 pints alcohol added to the water will not freeze at 5 degrees

Fahrenheit above zero. 91/2 pints alcohol added to the water will not freeze at zero Fah15 pints alcohol added to the water will not freeze at 25 degrees


Fahrenheit below zero.

Model 71–Capacity of Cooling System 6 Gallons.

434 pints alcohol added to the water will not freeze at 10 degrees

Fahrenheit above zero. 91/2 pints alcohol added to the water will not freeze at 5 degrees

Fahrenheit above zero. 12 pints alcohol added to the water will not freeze at zero Fahren

heit. 19 pints alcohol added to the water will not freeze at 25 degrees

Fahrenheit below zero. Since alcohol evaporates more quickly than the water, any loss should be replaced with equal parts of alcohol and water.

The se of powerful chemicals like calcium chloride, sodium chloride, or of glycerine in cooling solutions is apt to have troublesome consequences, because the chlorides attack the metal of the system, while glycerine will act as a solvent of the rubber connections and is troublesome in other ways.

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The Best Mixture.—Plain water and alcohol solutions would be the best were it not for the ease with which such compounds boil and the rapidity with which they evaporate. We have seen that the objections advanced against calcium chloride solution have ample foundation and that such compounds are not suitable for use, the chief advantage, that of cheapness, having been eliminated by the reduction in the price of denatured alcohol. The addition of a little glycerine to an alcohol and water solution reduces liability of evaporation, and when used in such quantities it has no injurious effect to speak of on rubber hose.

If the cooling water should freeze through neglect of ordinary precautions, do not attempt to thaw it out by starting the motor, but thaw it by putting the car in a warm place.

During cold weather the motor is sometimes hard to start after the cylinders have become thoroughly chilled. The remedy in a case of this kind is to introduce a small quantity of gasolineabout a teaspoonful-through the priming cocks direct into the cylinder. The rich mixture secured in this way will start the motor. Once started the clyinders will warm up and continue to work without trouble. In most cases the closing of the air-shutter in the carburetor will be sufficient to secure a start.

It is always well, when making a stop, to cover hood and radiator, which will give considerable protection from the likelihood of freezing and also make a new start easier.

A cloth wrung out in very hot water and held around the carburetor also will facilitate starting in extremely cold weather. This may become necessary in extremely low temperatures, when water which may have entered the float chamber of the carburetor and separated from the gasoline is likely to freeze and clog up the spray nozzle.

Cold Weather Lubrication.—The oiling system deserves some attention during the winter. Do not use too thick a lubricant, for the cold will congeal it still more. When starting in cold weather run the motor slowly for a short time, until things are warmed up sufficiently for the oil to flow freely.

Body Polish.—A much recommended body polish is made by mixing the following ingredients:

Paraffine Oil ...
Oil of Citronella
Oil of Cedar..

.1 gallon

.1 pint .312 ounces .11,2 ounces

Another scheme is to use a mixture of boiled linseed oil and turpentine, applying it sparingly and rubbing absolutely dry. The use of these polishes will restore even an old car to a degree of brightness that will please the owner. Floor wax is also used, as is furniture polish.

Care of Tops.—Mohair tops should be frequently dusted and brushed off. Pantasote tops and curtains are best cleaned with a soft brush dipped in water to which a little ammonia has been added. Afterwards rub dry. Never attempt to clean top and curtains with gasoline or kerosene. Do not fold the top until it has become thoroughly dry, because any moisture remaining in the folds is apt to cause mildew, besides making the top leaky and unsightly with spots. When a car is not used for some time, it is best to open the top, which keeps it well stretched and smooth.

Care of Leather Upholstery.-Do not use gasoline in cleaning leather upholstery. Plain water with a little ammonia will remove the dirt and a brisk rubbing with a clean woolen or flannel cloth will do the rest. For still more careful treatment use a regular leather dressing.

Care of Cloth Upholstery.—Do not use an acid solution in cleaning cloth upholstery.

Cloth is not affected by climatic conditions and withstands both heat and cold, and having no oil in its make-up, does not pick up or hold dust readily. To remove ordinary dust, beat cushions and backs lightly with stick or carpet beater, then remove dust with whisk-broom or brush. Grease or oil may be removed by the application of a solution of lukewarm water and Ivory soap applied with a woolen cloth.


of ..


Air Currents, How Produced . 236

Air Gap of Spark Plugs 154
Accessories, Useful
... 565 Airless Tires

Acid, Effect of in Oil ..... 213 Air Resistance, Effect of

Acid, How to Determine in Oil 213 Air Starting System

Action of Centrifugal Pumps . 245 Air Stove, Use of

Action of Differential Gear ... 323 Alcohol-Acetylene Process 111
Action of Friction Drive Axle . 280 Alcohol as Fuel

Action of Gear Pump

245 All Spur Planetary Gear 281
Action of Induction Coil .... 158

Angle of Clutch Cone Taper .. 259
Action of Progressive Gearset. 293 Angular Loads

Action of Typical Dynamo
176 Anti-freezing Solutions

Adjusting Brakes

541 Anti-friction Bearings, Install-
Adjusting Simple Carburetors. 131


Adulterants, How to Detect in Anti-friction Bearings, Types
Oil ....

Advantages of Electric Ignition 144

Armature, How Wound

Advantages of Eight and Armored Wood Frame

Twelve Cylinder Motors 586

Artillery Wheel

Advantages of Gear Drive .... 313 Assembling Ball Bearings 421
Advantages of Magneto Ignition 177 Auto-Lite System

Advantages of Selective Gearset 297 Automatic Pinion Shift

Air Circulating Fan Drives ... 255 Automatic Speed Governor 431
Air Circulating Fans .. 254 Automatic Type Carburetor 127
Air Circulating Through Radi- Automobile Bodies, How Made 33

252 Automobile Bodies, Torpedo
Air Cooling, Advantages of 238 and Streamline

Air Cooling by Blower Draft . 238 Automobile Brakes

Air Cooling by Convection and

Automobile, Definition of 17


Automobile, Essential Elements
Air Cooling by Flywheel Suc-

of ..

237 Automobile Lubricants

Air Cooling by Radiation 234 Automobile Parts, Functions of 30
Air Cooling by Simple Radiat- Automobile Parts, How Lubri-
ing System
234 cated

Air Cooling, Defects of

238 Automobile Power Plant, Fuels
Air Cooling Methods



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