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applied and the steel studded outer protector is especially valuable if a trip is contemplated through sections where the highways are rocky.

Q. Name some simple rules relating to the care of tires in general.

A. The following paragraphs are included in the instruction book of a prominent tire manufacturer and as they are based on a wide experience and may be easily committed to memory by those who wish to reduce their tire cost, they are reproduced in full.

Keep the floor of the garage free from oil. Oil softens the rubber and causes it to disintegrate, ruining the tire in a short time. Also see that all inner tubes in the car are kept free from grease and oil and out of contact of metal tools.

When the tire becomes worn more on one side than the other from rutty roads, reverse it. It will last longer. It is a good plan to change the front and rear tires, if they are of the same size, when they begin to show wear. The rear tires always wear out first.

A sprung axle will cause a tire to wear out in a hurry as will poorly lined up front wheels. Always jack up the car when it is to be left standing for any length of time. Keep all the strains off the tires that you possibly can at all times. Care should be used in "braking" your car and in rounding

The owner who does not subject his tires to any unusual strains and keeps them pumped up properly will have but little trouble.

A very important point often overlooked by wheel builders is to paint the outside surface of the rims or part upon which the tire rests. If this has been omitted, steps should be taken at once to have them painted, as rusty rims quickly destroy tires.

Always negotiate car tracks carefully, taking care not to hit a sharp frog or switch member which is apt to cut a tire badly. Never run on car tracks because these may have worn to a sharp or rough edge that will soon cut the rubber. In starting, always engage the clutch lever gently to avoid unnecessary slipping of the rear wheels and when turning corners always disengage the clutch and allow the car to coast around. This will save the differential gear as

corners.

well as the tires. Do not bring a car to a stop so near a curb that the tires can scrape against the rough stone in stopping or in starting off again.

If the car is not used during the winter, it is better to remove the tires from the rims, keeping casings and tubes away from the light—the temperature of the room to be about 50 degrees. It will be better to slightly inflate the tubes, as that keeps them very nearly in the position in which they will be used later on. Before the tires are put back, the rims should be thoroughly cleaned, and any rust carefully removed; a coat of shellac is also advised.

Occasionally a tire will apparently puncture without good reason. In such cases, examine the rim and it will probably be found that a bolt head protrudes above the rim surface and has finally worn through the tube. The obstruction should be buffed or filed off until the bolt lies flush with the rim bed.

If the trouble is caused by a bolt being driven too far into the rim, leaving a depression sufficiently sharp and deep to damage the tube, this should be filled in. A compound of pumice stone and coach varnish mixed to the consistency of putty will do the work nicely. Just fill the hole and leave the filling material to dry for an hour or so, and it will become hard.

LESSON THIRTY-SIX

MOTOR CAR EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES

Q. What does the regular equipment of motor cars include?

A. Most automobiles marketed at the present time are equipped as shown at Fig. 311, the accessories furnished by the makers including complete lighting outfit comprising two head lights, two side lights and a tail lamp; a windshield, speedometer (not illustrated) a top cover, and side curtains; some form of alarm signal and a tool outfit for tire restoration and mechanical repairs.

Q. What items of equipment are absolutely necessary?

A. The lights as well as the alarm signal are furnished to meet the laws of most states which say that an automobile must be equipped with adequate lighting equipment and alarm signal. The tool outfit for tire and mechanical repairs is also important. The windshield, top and speedometer are practically necessities but they make for added comfort of operation rather than conducing to safety or complying with the law.

Q. Describe the common method of lighting automobiles.

A. The conventional method of lighting automobiles is by gas and kerosene lamps as outlined at Fig. 312. With a system of this kind, which is furnished on most low and moderate priced cars, the powerful searchlights are designed to burn gas while the side and tail lamps burn oil. The acetylene is sometimes produced by the generator shown at A where calcium carbide is acted upon by water to generate the gas, but more often a Prest-O-Lite tank as depicted at B containing gas stored under pressure is used. The tail light is shown at C, the oil burning side lamp at D and the searchlight generally employed is of the form shown at E.

Q. Outline advantages of electric lighting, and name the two systems in common use?

A. Electric lighting systems are now furnished on practically

[graphic]

Fig. 311.—Side View of Typical Touring Car Showing Equipment

Regularly Furnished by Automobile Manufacturers. all high grade cars because they possess important advantages of cleanliness and reliability not present in gas or oil lamps. Electric searchlights are very powerful and use but little electric current on account of the efficient tungsten filament lamps used. The lamps are easily lighted from the seat by pushing a switch, whereas the oil and gas lamps must be lighted with matches, often a difficult proposition on a windy day and always a disagreeable task because it is necessary to step in the road and walk around the car to light each lamp in turn. Some users of stored gas have electric gas lighters installed but as this involves the use of a pressure regulator

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Fig. 312.—Parts of Combination Kerosene and Acetylene Gas Motor

Car Lighting System.

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Fig. 313.—Typical Five-Lamp Electric Lighting System Used on Chalmers Touring Cars.

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