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ford's agitation to draw from it an inference of guilt, asks the servant if

at that moment he saw aught to challenge his attention ;” the servant replies

“Sir, I did
Wilford was pale and trembling; and our master
Gave him a look as if 'twould pierce him through,
And cried • Remember!'-then he trembled more,

And we both quitted him." What change, either of place or tone, Rae wanted Kean to make, I know not; but Kean (not from doggedness, but feeling embarrassed perhaps by the number of persons who were looking at the rehearsal, attracted as they were by the novelty of Rae's arrangement of the last scene, and, moreover, such attention being tacit flattery to the manager and author) did not immediately comprehend what Rae wished to imply, and in consequence the passage was repeated three or four times : at last Rae said, “Never mind, Sir, we'll try it at night;" unintentionally, I believe, Rae said it in that hopeless tone which men use when they despair of making another understand what they mean. Kean's brow changed; a look, which I have since marked often, came over his pale face, and a peculiar motion of his lips, as if he was chewing or swallowing, which in Kean was a certain sign of hurt feeling or suppressed rage. I do not believe that Kean ever forgot that circumstance; mark, I say forgot, there was nothing to forgive, for Rae did not intend offence. Rae, it has been said, insulted Kean when he (Kean) made his débût at Drury—of this hereafter ; let me at present proceed to show why I believe Kean's memory recurred to this particular circumstance in after years. About 1817, Rae speculated in the East London Theatre, and there announced himself as Sir Edward Mortimer, the night before that on which Kean was to appear in it at Drury-lane Theatre; Kean, with a party, occupied a front box—(not his usual habit when visiting theatres :) he sat through the performance of the play, conspicuously applauding Rae and 0. Smith, who played Orson*; and once or twice, or it might be fancy," I thought his eye seemed to say, “I don't play the servant, now.”

In answer to the theorists that say genius will show itself in anything, I may be allowed to ask whether the Fidler in “ Speed the Plough," or Dubbs in “ The Review," were likely to afford opportunities for the display of histrionic skill?—he played these, and the Waiter in the farce of "Mrs. Wiggins;" and the most important part assigned him was Rosencrantz in Hamlet! Now, mark the peculiarity of this man's character : he, who had in London played the servants and messengers, quitted a provincial engagement a few months afterwards, rather than submit to play Laertes to the Hamlet of Master Betty. I cannot recall the name of the town where this occurred, but Mr. Beverley was the manager of the company, and has himself related the story frequently The Haymarket closed on the 12th September, 1806. On the 22d

Mrs. Wilkinson (now of the Surrey Theatre, then Miss Price) was the Barbara. Mr. Farrell (manager of the Pavilion) Wilford. And, what in connexion with the foregoing anecdote is odd enough, the actor who played this identical servant palpably bungled in the before-quoted speech. I have mentioned the names of individuals now in the metropolis, who will easily recall the circumstances de. tailed.

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of that month, Kean appeared at Tunbridge Wells, then under the management of Mrs. Baker, thus announced :-“ Lord Hastings and Peeping Tom by M. Kean, from the Theatre Royal Haymarket.” On the 24th, he played Tyke and Jerry Sneak; and, on subsequent occasions, Douglas, Sir George Airy, Harlequin, Delaval, Frederick (Lovers' Vows), Caleb Quotem, Snake (School for Scandal), Lenox (Macbeth), and Coxswain (Blackbeard). By this, it appears, he could have been engaged for no distinct line, as he occasionally figured as first tragedian, frequently as light comedian, generally sang comic songs between, was often the hero of farces, and not unfrequently delivered messages ! He remained in this company until September, 1807. His cast of characters during his second season were equally miscellaneous, including Grumio (Taming the Shrew), Mungo, Shacabac (Bluebeard), Gratiano (Merchant of Venice), Dr. Lenitive (Prize), Harlequin, Scaramouch, Ataliba (Pizarro), and the Lieutenant of the Tower in Richard the Third !


There is this singularity respecting Kean, Mrs. Siddons, and G. F. Cooke, that they each of them, though under very different circumstances, appeared in London and created no sensation—in Kean's case it was clearly impossible for want of opportunity)-each, after a lapse of years returned, and for a time held all the dramatic world in chains. Mrs. Siddons was (season 1775, during Garrick's management) in London and failed; in 1782 (after Garrick's death) she made her great hit. Cooke (and this fact is less known) appeared in either 1777 or 1778 at the Haymarket, as Castalio in “The Orphan "-he failed entirely. Cooke was then just of age, and Henderson had made, a little while before him, a strong impression, and was getting up his name as the legitimate successor of Garrick. “What could induce Cooke to attempt a part for which his figure, face, and manner were so peculiarly unfitted, it is impossible to imagine !" I remember hearing this remark made by Quick, who first told me of Cooke's having made this unsuccessful essay; and it is odd enough that Quick, in his boyish dramatic mania, had appeared as Altamont in the “Fair Penitent" (1767) at the Haymarket, and failed most egregiously, which those who remember his face, voice, and figure, may easily imagine. Mrs. Siddons had a lapse of seven years between her failure and

Kean passed eight years after leaving the Haymarket ere he appeared at Drury. But poor Cooke, after his Haymarket effort, was provincializing twenty-two years before he took the town by storm, being, when he again appeared, the same age that Kean was when he died. Cooke was thirty-one years older than Kean,* and used to say that he recollected Quin : of course, he meant merely having seen him off the stage, for Quin had ceased to act before Cooke was born.



It has been generally supposed that Kean was unappreciated in the provinces, and many stories were circulated, at the time of his metropo

* It is often difficult to convince ourselves of the actual ages of bygone public characters. Bannister, who is yet living, and I trust will yet live many years, made his débát fifty-seven years since; he, Mrs. Siddons, and Cooke, were born within a year of each other; each made their first appearances within about the same space, and yet Jack Bannister had been for twenty-three years the darling of the town when Cooke made his hit!!

April.-VOL. XL. NO. CLX.

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litan dibút, of his being hissed off at Birmingham, Guernsey, and Cheltenham : there are plenty of persons in this world who never think any wonder wonderful enough, and cannot be contented with the Munchausan feat of driving a nail through the moon, but must have it clenched on the other side: the marvel-makers propagated these tales of Kean's failure, which are difficult of refutation, inasmuch as they put an adversary in the dilemma of proving a negative : it should be remembered that the provinces fostered and matured the talent that London overlooked, in the case of Mrs. Siddons, and many other instances might be cited. But if Kean was, anterior to the year 1814, the rejected of all theatres--if he was pelted in Perth and “goosed” at Guernsey—how comes it that Beverley, (the intimate friend and associate of G. F. Cooke,) himself an actor and manager, sought him out and engaged him as his leading tragedian, when actors, ay, and good actors too, were decidedly more plentiful than at present; and when his figure was certainly a bar that nothing but considerable talent could have surmounted ? How comes it also that Cherry (author, actor, and manager) gave him an engagement to lead generally; and that, not from the necessities of the theatre, for the company was, for South Wales and the provinces of Ireland, where they were, an excellent one; but because Kean was evidently of sufficient importance to do what he pleased. In Cherry's company he played Hamlet, Richard, Prince Orlando, (in the Opera of the - Cabinet,”) Rugantino, Harlequin, &c. &c. His fellow performers were several established provincial actors, whose acquiescence in Kean's playing such a diversity of characters was a tacit admission of his superiority. Amid the performers were Cherry and his daughter, Woulds, (now, and for the last quarter of a century, a favourite at Bath,) and last, certainly not least, Sheridan Knowles and his wife. There was an Irish drama (written by an actor of the Dublin Theatre, named Marat) entitled “ Brian Boroihme,” (Anglicè, Boru:) this piece was very frequently played at Clonmel, Mrs. Knowles as the heroine, Kean the hero, and the author of the Hunchback” (who was the first singer) as the High Priest. Mrs. Edwin had a play-bill of this company's performance, in which Rugantino was the afterpiece, Kean playing Rugantino, and Knowles Contarino: this bill is now in the possession of Mr. Tiernay, theatrical bookseller, Drury-lane.

At Waterford, Clonmel, or Swansea, Knowles produced his first drama, and there Kean also made his attenipts at authorship, particularly as a producer of ballets of action. One of his, entitled “ Koa and Zoa,” was very popular in the provinces; Kean's combat in that was admirable. I As to what education he then displayed, I cannot speak;

* Andrew Cherry, (author of the “Soldier's Daughter," "Two Strings to your Bow," &c.) a comedian of great talent, but of peculiar humour. He made his début as Sir Benjamin Dove, in Cumberland's neglected comedy of “ The Brothers;" but Munden, Quick, Dowton, Suett, Bannister, Fawcett, T. Knight, Emery, were all established favourites, and the next season brought Collins (who died early, but who was a very powerful actor) and Mathews into the field : against such a phalanx of comic performers, poor little Cherry could not hope for great success ; under the circumstances, his success was really extraordinary, but it did not satisfy his ambition. He died at Monmouth in 1812.

† Mara appeared as Dennis Brulgruddery at Covent-garden Theatre in 1806. He was a great favourite in Dublin, and I believe a man of considerable talent. He has been dead some years.

* When Newton, a celebrated country comedian, heard of Kean's success is

66 This piece

but I well remember that when a piece called “The Fisherman's Hut,” which the bills announced as “written by Mr. Kean,” was acting at Waterford, that some one praised it highly, and said, does Kean great credit; I did not think him capable of writing such a thing.” “ He write it !” said Cherry, “ Kean wrote none of that piece but the bad English that is in it.” . This remark might have been a piece of gratuitous ill-nature on the part of Cherry; but if Kean had then been known or believed to be a well-educated man, he dared not have ventured it. I believe Kean “picked up his education as he could; he never read, to my knowledge, any thing but newspapers.

At Swansea, Mrs. Hatton, better known as Anne of Swansea, the sister of Mrs. Siddons, took great notice of Kean, and was said to be in love with him ; be that as it may, she certainly wrote a drama for his benefit, whilst he was with Cherry at Swansea. His salary then was twenty-five shillings per week. He left because an increase to thirty shillings was refused. Cooper, now of Drury-lane theatre, succeeded him as leading tragedian. Cooper was then (1812) a novice *.

Kean applied to the Bath managers, and also to Liverpool; however, they gave the preference at the former town to Vandenhoff, who appeared there as Jaffier, but with no great success: from Liverpool he received a reply that their company was full for that season. He wrote there again in 1813, and his services were declined; he would have gone at 21. a-week with pleasure. In 1814, he was there as the star at 50l. per night !

When his former associates in Cherry's company heard that he was about to appear at Drury, either as Richard or Shylock, two of them, Messrs. Bengought and Santer, (the former since deceased,) actually wrote to him not to attempt such a thing; but that if he came out in Daran (a melo-dramatic, showy part) in “ The Exile," or Rolla, he would succeed.



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Of his metropolitan appearance-of the usage he really received and of the influence that actually at length got him an engagement, I shall take a future opportunity of speaking ; the anticipations and sneers of the persons connected with the establishment of Drury-lane theatre;”-the “ Who is the man?of the members of Covent-garden, may form the subject of an article at some future time.

I have only thrown together the foregoing facts, as affording clues to trace the tragedian through the mazes of his dramatic career; and I am particularly induced to give them in this shape, because where contradictory statements are so numerous, it is but fair to give the public the chance of drawing their own inferences. Richard, he was quite amazed. He went to Newcastle to see him play that character, when Kean was starring there in 1815. Much had been said of Kean's combat, and the house was at a dead hush (as the English alu ays are during any pantomimic performance), when Newton called out, “ Why that’s t'ould combat from · Koa and Zoa ;' I've seen him fight it a hundred times !”

* Mr. Cooper, now stage-manager of Drury-lane theatre, appeared at Bath in 1810, and played Brindal's line of characters at the Haymarket in the spring of 1811. He could scarcely have been of age when he joined Cherry's company; he was certainly younger than Kean'; yet if Kean's data was correct, they must have been nearly the same age.

† Bengough appeared at Drury-lane in 1816, as the Baron in “ Lover's Vows." He was afterwards stage-manager of the Cobourg, and died in 1827.



(AMONGST the minor poems of Italy, the tone of which is in general plaintive and languishing, there are found occasional breathings of patriotic sorrow or indignation, which strike upon the spirit like the thrilling summons of a trumpet piercing through the melodies of flute and guitar. The celebrated “ Italia, Italia !" of Filicaja will be remembered by every student; but there are other effusions of similar character, scarcely inferior in awakening energy, and penetrated with the deepest feelings of the “ Servi ancor frementi." A few of these are here presented to the reader.]



Io grido, e griderò finche mi senta, &c.
I CRY aloud and shall hear my call-

Arno, Tesino, Tiber !-Adrian deep,
And blue Tyrrhene! Let him, first roused from sleep,
Startle the next-one peril broods o'er all !
It nought avails that Italy should plead,

Forgetting valour, sinking in despair,

At strangers' feet !-our land is all too fair,
Nor tears nor prayers can check ambition's speed.
In vain her faded cheek-her humbled eye,
For pardon sue; 'tis not her agony,

Her death alone may now appease her foes.
Be theirs to suffer who to combat shun!
But oh! weak pride, thus feeble and undone-

Nor to wage battle, nor endure repose !


Quando giù dai gran monti bruna bruna, &c.
When from the mountain's brow the gathering shades

Of twilight fall, on one deep thought I dwell;
Day beams o'er other lands, if here she fades,

Nor bids the universe at once farewell.
But thou, I cry, my country !-what a night

Spreads o'er thy glories one dark sleeping pall !
Thy thousand triumphs won by valour's might,

And wisdom's voice-what now remains of all ?
And seest thou not the ascending flame of war,
Burst through thy darkness reddening from afar?

Is not thy misery's evidence complete ?
But, if endurance can thy fall delay,
Still-still endure, devoted one! and say,

If it be victory thus but to retard defeat?

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