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definite speech at all; as in some of Shelley's poems, or more noticeably in the works of some living poets. But of these two, poetry and music, we cannot say which is before or after the other.

Prose is simply the direct expression of a definite idea. But as every idea must, to a greater or less extent, excite emotions, these will to a greater or less extent affect the expression of the idea ; and we shall have prose as musical and poetical as Milton's or Burke's, or as flat and unmusical as a modern newspaper, or a parliamentary report. Prose, too, will have its laws of expression, just as music and poetry have. While, on the other hand, we see that when the thought and its expression are almost absolutely definite, and are little, if at all, influenced by the emotions, we get that which, though it may be forced to obey the outward laws of poetry—the laws of its expression (metre, rhythm, etc.)—is not poetry at all, but plainly prose; as very noticeably in Pope and his followers, and occasionally in parts of a few of Wordsworth's poems. We also see from this the force of the objection against didactic and philosophical poetry ;-because they must, by the nature of their subject, aim at the direct expression of some absolutely definite thought, and this can only be injured and disturbed by the interference of the emotions. And, lastly, we see that the more definite and direct we wish the expression of our thought to be, the less poetical must we make our prose.

IMAGINATION AND FANCY.-Imagination is the creative power of the mind, and the prime agent in all man's power of perception; that is, imagination sees into things and thoughts; perceives their properties and essence, and having mastered these, re-creates from them

-gives form or image to what was before disconnected and indefinite. Fancy is an effort of the memory, by means of which certain things, or thoughts, are connected with others, because of their likenesses. It does not create or perceive, but it sees, and speaks of what is already there, actually existing. For example, when Milton writes of "the pale primrose that forsaken dies,” he is using imagination; for, from perceiving its inobtrusive growth, and how its colour grows paler as it dies away, and that it dies when the gayer flowers arrive, he creates the image—the thought—that it dies in silent grief at being deserted for the gayer flowers that follow : while, when he writes of “the pansy freaked with jet,” he is using only fancy; for memory telling him that jet is black, and the spots on the pansy also black, he whimsically, so to speak, connects the two, and calls the spots “spots of jet.” This is the strictest distinction between imagination and fancy; but it is plain that the noblest kind of fancy must often overtake, and almost become one with, a weaker kind of imagination.

NOTE.—I have to thank Mr. J. W. Hales for his most kind permission to make use of his well-known “ Longer English Poems,” from the excellent critical notes in which I have obtained several valuable hints.

I have also to thank Messrs. Longmans & Co. for permission to print the selections from Lord Macaulay's writings; and Messrs. George Routledge & Co. for that from Leigh Hunt.

January, 1876.

INDEX.

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ARNOLD, MATTHEW.

The Forsaken Merman
BACON, LORD, FRANCIS.

Studies
BLAKE, WILLIAM.

A Dream
BROWNING, ELIZABETH BARRETT.

The Romance of the Swan's Nest

The Forced Recruit...
BROWNING, ROBERT.

Good News from Ghent
Home Thoughts from Abroad
The Guardian Angel ...

From “Luria"
BURKE, EDMUND.

From “ Speech on the American War" ...
From “ On Present Discontents”.
From “ Speech on the Nabob of Arcot's Debts" ...

From “On Present Discontents"
BURNS, ROBERT.

To a Daisy ...
BYRON, LORD.

The Lake of Geneva ...
To the Ocean
The Eve of Waterloo

From “ The Giaour”...
CAMPBELL, THOMAS.

Hohenlinden

68

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CARLYLE, THOMAS.

From “ Past and Present”

From “ Sartor Resartus”
CHALMERS, DR. THOMAS.

From “ Sir Isaac Newton” . ...
CHATHAM, EARL OF.

From “Speech on the American War”
CHAUCER, GEOFFREY (attributed to).

An April Day ...
COLERIDGE, SAMUEL TAYLOR.

From “The Ancient Mariner"

From “ The Friend”...
COWPER, WILLIAM.

Boadicea ...

From “ The Task” ...
DE QUINCEY, THOMAS.

From “ The Confessions” ...
GIBBON, EDWARD.

From “The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire ”
GOLDSMITH, OLIVER.

From “The Deserted Village”
GRAY, THOMAS.

An Elegy written in a Country Churchyard
GREEN, JOHN RICHARD.

From “ A Short History of the English People”...
HAZLITT, WILLIAM.

From “The Eloquence of the British Senate”. ...
HEMANS, FELICIA DOROTHEA.

The Homes of England

The Pilgrim Fathers ...
HUNT, LEIGH.

Abou ben Adhem
IRVING, THE REV. EDWARD.

From “ Of Judgment to Come”

... 158

gment to Come"

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IRVING, WASHINGTON.

From “The Sketch Book”
KEATS, JOHN.

From “Hyperion” ...
KINGSLEY, THE REV, CHARLES.

The Sands o’ Dee ...
The Three Fishers ...
A Farewell ...
From “ Prose Idylls”...
From “ Westward Ho!”

From “Westward Ho!”
LAMB, CHARLES.

From “ Thoughts on Books” ...
LONGFELLOW, HENRY WADSWORTH.

The Village Blacksmith
LOWELL, JAMES RUSSELL.

To a Dandelion

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Love

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MACAULAY, LORD, THOMAS BABINGTON.

From “Horatius” ...
From “ The History”

From “Essay on Sir James Mackintosh”
MAURICE, THE REV. JOHN FREDERICK DENISON.

From “ On Love and Sacrifice"
MILTON, JOHN.

From “ Paradise Lost”
From “ Areopagitica”
From “ An Apology for Smectymnuus
Four Sonnets

"
From “ Areopagitica”
RUSKIN, JOHN.

From “Modern Painters”

From “Modern Painters”
SCOTT, SIR WALTER.

The Gathering Song ...
From “ The Lay of the Last Minstrel” ...

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107

129

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