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Chapter XI. Of the Law of the Increase of Capital.

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1. Means and motives to saving, on what dependent 100

2. Causes of diversity in the effective strength of the desire of accu

mulation 102

3. Examples of deficiency in the strength of this desire 103

4. Exemplification of its excess .... 107

Chapter XII. Of the Late of the Increase of Production
from Land.

1. The limited quantitv and limited productiveness of land, the real

limits to production 108

2. The law of production from the soil, a law of diminishing return

in proportion to the increased application of labour and capital . 109

3. Antagonist principle to the law of diminishing return; the pro

gress of improvements in production Ill

Chapter XIII. Consequences of the foregoing Laws.

1. Remedies when the limit to production is the weakness of the

principle of accumulation 117

2. Necessity of restraining population not confined to a state of

inequality of property 117

3. — nor superseded by free trade in food 119

4. — nor in general by emigration , 121

BOOK II.
DISTKIBUTION.
Chapteb^jt^ Of Property.

| 1. Introductory remarks 123

2. Statement of the question 124

3. Examination of Communism 125

4. — of St. Simonism and Fourierism . . 130

Chapter II. The same subject continued.

11. The institution of property implies freedom of acquisition by contract 133

2. —the validity of prescription 134

3. — the power of bequest, but not the right of inheritance. Ques

tion of inheritance examined 135

4. Should the right of bequest be limited, and how? 138

5. Grounds of property in land, different from those of property in

moveables 140

6. — only valid on certain conditions, which are not always realized.

The limitations considered 141

7. Eights of property in abuses 144

Chapter III. Of the Classes among whom the Produce

is distributed. ',

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S 1. The produce sometimes shared among three classes 145

2. — sometimes belongs undividedly to one 145

3. — sometimes divided between two 146

Chapter Of Competition and Custom.

i 1. Competition not the sole regulator of the division of the produce . 147

2. Influence of custom on rents, and on the tenure of land . . . 148

8. Influence of custom on prices 149

Chapter V. Of Slavery.

t 1. Slavery considered in relation to the slaves .... ... 151

2. — in relation to production 152

8. Emancipation considered in relation to the interest of the slave-

owners 153

Chapter VI. Of Peasant Proprietors.

| 1. Difference between English and Continental opinions respecting

peasant properties 155

2. Evidence respecting peasant properties in Switzerland .... 156

3. — in Norway 159

4. — in Germany 161

5. — in Belgium 164

6. — in the Channel Islands 167

7. — in France 168

Chapter VII. Continuation of the same subject.

| 1. Influence of peasant properties in stimulating industry .... 171

2. — in training intelligence 172

8. — in promoting forethought and self-control 173

4. Their effect on population 174

5. — on the subdivision of land 180

Chapter VIII. Of Metayers.

f 1. Nature of the metayer system, and its varieties 183

2. Its advantages and inconveniences 184

3. Evidence concerning its effects in different countries 185

4. Is its abolition desirable? 191

Chapter IX. Of Cottiers.

% 1. Nature and operation of cottier tenure 193

2. In an overpeopled country its necessary consequence m nominal

rents 195

3. — which are inconsistent with industry, frugality, or restraint on

population 196

4 Ryot tenancy of India 197

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| 1. Wages depend on the demand and supply of labour—in other

words, on population and capital 207

2. Examination of some popular opinions respecting wages . . . 208

3. Certain rare circumstances excepted, high wages imply restraints V

on population 211

4. — which are in some cases legal 213

5. — in others the effect of particular customs 214

6. Due restriction of population the only safeguard of a labouring

class 218

Chapter XIJ*^ Of Popular Remedies for Low Wages.

11. A legal or customary minimum of wages, with a guarantee of

employment 218

2. — would require as a condition, legal measures for repression of

population 219

3. Allowances in aid of wages 221

4. The Allotment System 223

Chapter XIHT Tlie Remedies for Low Wages farther

considered.

{ 1. Pernicious direction of public opinion on the subject of population 225

2. Grounds for expecting improvement 227

3. Twofold means of elevating the habits of the labouring people:

by education 230

4 — and by large measures of immediate relief, through foreign and

home colonization 231

Chapter XIV. Of the Differences of Wages in different

Employments.

11. Differences of wages arising from different degrees of attractive-

ness in different employments 233

2. Differences arising from natural monopolies 236

3. Effect on wages of a class of subsidized competitors 238

4 — of the competition of persons with independent means of sup-

port 240

6. Wages of women, why lower than those of men .... . 242

6. Differences of wages arising from restrictive laws, and from combi-

nations 243

7. Cases in which wages are fixed by custom 244

Chapter X*\ Of Profits.

| 1. Profits resolvable into three parts; interest, insurance, and wages

of superintendence 245 /

i. The minimum of profits; and the variations to which it is liable . 246

Chapter XVl. Of Rent.

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13. — except in so far as they vary from employment to employment 279

4. Profits an element in Cost of Production, in so far as they vary

from employment to employment 280

5. — or are spread over unequal lengths of time 281

6. Occasional elements in Cost of Production: taxes, and scarcity

value of materials 283

Chapter^?; Of Rent, in its Relation to Value.

11, Commodities which are susceptible of indefinite multiplication, but

not without increase of cost. Law of their Value, Cost of Pro-

duction in the most unfavourable existing circumstances . . . 285

2. Such commodities, when produced in circumstances more favour-

able, yield a rent equal to the difference of cost 286

3. Bent of mines and fisheries, and ground-rent of buildings . . . 288

4. Cases of extra profit analogous to rent 289

Chapter VJ; Summary of the Theory of Value.

\ 1. The theory of Value recapitulated in a series of propositions . . 290

2. How modified by the case of labourers cultivating for subsistence. 292

3. — by the case of slave labour 298

Chapteb VII. Of Money.

11. Purposes of a Circulating Medium 293

2. Gold and Silver, why fitted for those purposes 294

3. Money a mere contrivance for facilitating exchanges, which does

not affect the laws of Value 296

Chapteb VIIL Of the Value of Money, as dependent on

Demand and Supply.

51. Value of Money, an ambiguous expression 297

2. The value of money depends, cseteris paribus, on its quantity . . 298

3. — together with the rapidity of circulation 300

4. Explanations and limitations of this principle 801

Chapteb IX. Of the Value of Money, as dependent on

Cost of Production.

S1. The value of money, in a state of freedom, conforms to the value of

the bullion contained in it 303

2. — which is determined by the cost of production 304

3. This law, how related to the principle laid down in the preceding

chapter 306

Chapter X. Of a Double Standard, and Subsidiary Coins.

81. Objections to a double standard 307

2. The use of the two metals as money, how obtained without making

both of them legal tender 308

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