Trade, Technology, and International Competitiveness
World Bank Technical Paper No. 300. Provides an overview of past experiences with the introduction of agricultural technologies in World Bank-funded projects in Mediterranean climates, with an emphasis on the Middle East and North African region. The authors review the adequacy of present crop and livestock technologies, identify technical and socio-economic constraints on their adoption, and describe prospective technologies for pilot testing and full-scale introduction in future Bank-funded projects.
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ability able accumulation activities areas base basic become capital chapter China compete competitive complex considerable costs country's create depends determining developing countries direct domestic dynamic East Asian economic growth effective efficiency engineering enterprises environment example existing experience exports factor firms foreign forms given human import substitution important improvements income increasing industrial countries industrial policy inflation innovation inputs institutions interest interventions investment involved knowledge Korea labor learning less liberalization macroeconomic manufacturing market failures measures ment NIEs operating output particularly percent performance period productivity growth promote protection recent relatively remains requires result rise role sectors selective share significant skills sources specialized specific strategies structure success suggests suppliers Taiwan technical technological capabilities tend tion trade transfer United world market
Сторінка 114 - A protecting duty, continued for a reasonable time, will sometimes be the least inconvenient mode in which the nation can tax itself for the support of such an experiment. But the protection should be confined to cases in which there is good ground of assurance that the industry which it fosters will after a time be able to dispense with it...
Сторінка 114 - But it cannot be expected that individuals should, at their own risk, or rather to their certain loss, introduce a new manufacture, 594 THE INFLUENCE OF GOVERNMENT. and bear the burden of carrying it on, until the producers have been educated up to the level of those with whom the processes are traditional.
Сторінка 114 - The only case in which, on mere principles of political economy, protecting duties can be defensible, is when they are imposed temporarily (especially in a young and rising nation) in hopes of naturalizing a foreign industry, in itself perfectly suitable to the circumstances of the country.
Сторінка 22 - The Ministry of International Trade and Industry decided to establish in Japan industries which require intensive employment of capital and technology, industries that in consideration of competitive cost of production should be the most inappropriate for Japan, industries such as steel, oil refining, petrochemicals, automobiles, aircraft, industrial machinery of all sorts, and electronics including electronic computers.
Сторінка 42 - It is hardly possible to overrate the value, in the present low state of human improvement, of placing human beings in contact with persons dissimilar to themselves, and with modes of thought and action unlike those with which they are familiar.
Сторінка 22 - Japan, industries such as steel, oil refining, petrochemicals, automobiles, aircraft, industrial machinery of all sorts, and later electronics, including electronic computers. From a short-run, static viewpoint, encouragement of such industries would seem to conflict with economic rationalism. But, from a long-range point of view, these are precisely the industries where income elasticity of demand is high, technological progress is rapid, and labour productivity rises fast.
Сторінка 4 - America's economic competitiveness — defined as our ability to produce goods and services that meet the test of international markets while our citizens earn a standard of living that is both rising and sustainable over the long run — is eroding slowly but steadily.
Сторінка 114 - ... of carrying it on until the producers have been educated up to the level of those with whom the processes are traditional. A protecting duty, continued for a reasonable time, will sometimes be the least inconvenient mode in which the nation can tax itself for the support of such an experiment.
Сторінка 65 - Gains from Liberalization Measuring the benefits of trade reform has been a frustrating endeavor. Although the discussion of trade policy at times gives the impression that a liberal trade regime can do wonders for a country's economy, and most observers believe firmly that trade reform is beneficial, yet systematic attempts at quantification fail to single out trade policy as a major factor in economic growth.
Сторінка 114 - But it is essential that the protection should be confined to cases in which there is good ground of assurance that the industry which it fosters will after a time be able to dispense with it ; nor should the domestic producers ever be allowed to expect that it will be continued to them beyond the time necessary for a fair trial of what they are capable of accomplishing.