Frontiers of Justice: Disability, Nationality, Species Membership
Harvard University Press, 2006 - 487 стор.
Theories of social justice are necessarily abstract, reaching beyond the particular and the immediate to the general and the timeless. Yet such theories, addressing the world and its problems, must respond to the real and changing dilemmas of the day. A brilliant work of practical philosophy, Frontiers of Justice is dedicated to this proposition. Taking up three urgent problems of social justice neglected by current theories and thus harder to tackle in practical terms and everyday life, Martha Nussbaum seeks a theory of social justice that can guide us to a richer, more responsive approach to social cooperation. The idea of the social contract—especially as developed in the work of John Rawls—is one of the most powerful approaches to social justice in the Western tradition. But as Nussbaum demonstrates, even Rawls’s theory, suggesting a contract for mutual advantage among approximate equals, cannot address questions of social justice posed by unequal parties. How, for instance, can we extend the equal rights of citizenship—education, health care, political rights and liberties—to those with physical and mental disabilities? How can we extend justice and dignified life conditions to all citizens of the world? And how, finally, can we bring our treatment of nonhuman animals into our notions of social justice? Exploring the limitations of the social contract in these three areas, Nussbaum devises an alternative theory based on the idea of “capabilities.” She helps us to think more clearly about the purposes of political cooperation and the nature of political principles—and to look to a future of greater justice for all.
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Social Contracts and Three Unsolved Problems of Justice
ii Three Unsolved Problems
iii Rawls and the Unsolved Problems
iv Free Equal and Independent
v Grotius Hobbes Locke Hume Kant
vi Three Forms of Contemporary Contractarianism
vii The Capabilities Approach
The TwoStage Contract Reaffirmed and Modified
iv Justification and Implementation
v Assessing the TwoStage Contract
Beitz and Pogge
vii Prospects for an International Contractrarianism
Capabilities across National Boundaries
ii Why Capabilities?
iii Capabilities and Rights
viii Capabilities and Contractarianism
ix In Search of Global Justice
Disabilities and the Social Contract
ii Prudential and Moral Versions of the Contract Public and Private
Primary Goods Kantian Personhood Rough Equality Mutual Advantage
iv Postponing the Question of Disability
v Kantian Personhood and Mental Impairment
Kittay and Sen
vii Reconstructing Contractarianism?
Capabilities and Disabilities
ii The Bases of Social Cooperation
Aristotelian not Kantian
iv The Priority of the Good the Role of Agreement
v Why Capabilities?
vi Care and the Capabilities List
vii Capability or Functioning?
viii The Charge of Intuitionism
ix The Capabilities Approach and Rawlss Principles of Justice
The Species Norm
The Question of Guardianship
Education and Inclusion
The Work of Care
xiv Liberalism and Human Capabilities
Mutual Advantage and Global Inequality The Transnational Social Contract
The TwoStage Contract Introduced
iv Equality and Adequacy
v Pluralism and Toleration
vi An International Overlapping Consensus?
The Role of Institutions
ix Ten Principles for the Global Structure
Beyond Compassion and Humanity Justice for Nonhuman Animals
Indirect Duties Duties of Compassion
iii Utilitarianism and Animal Flourishing
Extending the Capabilities Approach
Theory and Imagination
vi Species and Individual
No Nature Worship
viii Positive and Negative Capability and Functioning
ix Equality and Adequacy
x Death and Harm
xi An Overlapping Consensus?
The Capabilities List
xiii The Ineliminability of Conflict
xiv Toward a Truly Global Justice
The Moral Sentiments and the Capabilities Approach
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